Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

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465 articles
Research Article

A Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing the Onset of Hookah Smoking among Iranian Men with Turkmen Ethnicity

Shirin Shahbazi Sighaldeh, Fatemeh Zarghami, Abdurrahman Charkazi, Reza Negarandeh
Pages: 135 - 142
Introduction: Hookah smoking has grown considerably among Iranian Turkmen in the past two decades. The reasons for this increase in the consumption of hookah are unclear. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of determining the factors related to the start of hookah smoking in men with Turkmen...
Research Article

Socioeconomic inequity in health care utilization, Iran

Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi, Jafar Hassanzadeh, Babak Eshrati, Abbas Rezaianzadeh
Pages: 139 - 146
Reducing poor–rich inequities in health is one of the priorities of both national and international organizations and is also one of the main challenges of health sectors in Iran. Since, in the view of policy making, quantifying the size of inequity in health care utilization (HCU) is a prerequisite...

The Saudi Data & Artificial Intelligence Authority (SDAIA) Vision: Leading the Kingdom’s Journey toward Global Leadership

Ziad A. Memish, Majid M. Altuwaijri, Abdulgader H. Almoeen, Sarah M. Enani
Pages: 140 - 142
The emerging field of data and artificial intelligence (AI) and its noticeable expansion has motivated nations to transition from traditional economic models to learning economies using these technologies. In April 2016, the Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman Al Saud introduced Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030...
Short Communication

Drug resistance detection and mutation patterns of multidrug resistant tuberculosis strains from children in Delhi

Jyoti Arora, Ritu Singhal, Manpreet Bhalla, Ajoy Verma, Niti Singh, Digamber Behera, Rohit Sarin, Vithal Prasad Myneedu
Pages: 141 - 145
A total of 312 sputum samples from pediatric patients presumptive of multidrug resistant tuberculosis were tested for the detection of drug resistance using the GenoTypeMTBDRplus assay. A total of 193 (61.8%) patients were smear positive and 119 (38.1%) were smear negative by Ziehl–Neelsen staining....
Research Article

Health problems and the health care provider choices: A comparative study of urban and rural households in Egypt

Salma B. Galal, Nageya Al-Gamal
Pages: 141 - 149
Objective: To assess families’ health problems and the health facility choices in an urban and a rural district in Egypt. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study with a multi-stage random sample of 948 urban and 401 rural households was undertaken in a district of Cairo and rural Giza. Data was...
Research Article

Predictive factors for percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposure among healthcare workers in a developing country

Zeynep Türe, Ayşegül Ulu Kiliç, Fatma Cevahir, Dilek Altun, Esra Özhan, Emine Alp
Pages: 141 - 146
The aim of this study is to determine the risk factors for percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposures in healthcare workers (HCW) in one of the largest centers of a middle income country, Turkey. This study has a retrospective design. HCWs who presented between August 2011 and June 2013, with Occupational...
Research Article

Evaluation of the Cell Phone Microbial Contamination in Dental and Engineering Schools: Effect of Antibacterial Spray

Reihaneh Hosseini Fard, Raziyeh Hosseini Fard, Mohammad Moradi, Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour
Pages: 143 - 148
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial contamination of cell phone in dental and engineering schools and also investigating the effect of an antibacterial spray. Method and Materials: A questionnaire was completed by participants, including the pattern of using mobile...
Research Article

Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial utilization in a Canadian tertiary-care teaching hospital

Colin Lee, Sandra A.N. Walker, Nick Daneman, Marion Elligsen, Lesley Palmay, Bryan Coburn, Andrew Simor
Pages: 143 - 150
Objectives: Inappropriate antimicrobial use can promote antimicrobial resistance, which is associated with increased patient morbidity and mortality. Identifying the pattern of antimicrobial use can provide data from which targeted antimicrobial stewardship interventions can be made. The primary objective...
Letter to Editor

Preliminary Feasibility Study of Questionnaire-based Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis Screening in Marseille Sheltered Homeless People, Winter 2018

Tran Duc Anh Ly, Floriane Holi-Jamovski, Van Thuan Hoang, Thi Loi Dao, Michel Drancourt, Philippe Gautret
Pages: 143 - 145
Research Article

Top Ethical Issues Concerning Healthcare Providers Working in Saudi Arabia

Amar Mansour Almoallem, Mohammed Abdulaziz Almudayfir, Yassar H. Al-Jahdail, Anwar E. Ahmed, Adnan Al-Shaikh, Salim Baharoon, Abdullah AlHarbi, Hamdan Al-Jahdali
Pages: 143 - 152
Background: Healthcare providers working in Saudi Arabia come from various nationalities, cultures, and training backgrounds. This study aimed to assess the perceptions of healthcare providers working in Riyadh hospitals about ethical dilemmas and solutions. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study...

Role of Ascertainment Bias in Determining Case Fatality Rate of COVID-19

Maia P. Smith
Pages: 143 - 145
Case fatality rate (CFR) is used to calculate mortality burden of COVID-19 under different scenarios, thus informing risk-benefit balance of interventions both pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical. However, observed CFR is driven by testing: as more low-risk cases are identified, observed CFR will decline....
Research Article

Perinatal and family factors associated with preadolescence overweight/obesity in Greece: The GRECO study

Grigoris Risvas, Ivi Papaioannou, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos, Paul Farajian, Vasiliki Bountziouka, Antonis Zampelas
Pages: 145 - 153
Objective: To explore associations of perinatal and family factors with preadolescence overweight and obesity in a sample of Greek schoolchildren. Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional study among 2093 students (10.9 ± 0.72 years, 44.9% boys) and their parents were conducted. Anthropometric (e.g., height,...
Letter to Editor

Is Digital Epidemiology the Future of Clinical Epidemiology?

Giuseppe Lippi, Camilla Mattiuzzi, Gianfranco Cervellin
Pages: 146 - 146

COVID-19: Nothing is Normal in this Pandemic

Luzia Gonçalves, Maria Antónia Amaral Turkman, Carlos Geraldes, Tiago A. Marques, Lisete Sousa
Pages: 146 - 149
This manuscript brings attention to inaccurate epidemiological concepts that emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic. In social media and scientific journals, some wrong references were given to a “normal epidemic curve” and also to a “log-normal curve/distribution”. For many years, textbooks and courses...
Research Article

Exposure to toxics during pregnancy and childhood and asthma in children: A pilot study

Souheil Hallit, Pascale Salameh
Pages: 147 - 154
Environmental factors, pesticides, alcohol and smoking are linked to asthma in children. The association of toxic substances exposure with asthma has not been evaluated. Our objective is to assess such associations among children aged less than 16 years old. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted...
Research Article

Prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among tea garden and general population in Dibrugarh, Assam, India

Tulika G. Mahanta, Rajnish Joshi, Bhupendra N. Mahanta, Denis Xavier
Pages: 147 - 156
Introduction: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are multifactorial. Previous research has reported a high prevalence of CVD risk factors in tea-garden workers. This study was conducted to assess prevalence and level of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among tea-garden and general population...
Research Article

Pilot use of a novel smartphone application to track traveller health behaviour and collect infectious disease data during a mass gathering: Hajj pilgrimage 2014

Amani S. Alqahtani, Nasser F. BinDhim, Mohamed Tashani, Harold W. Willaby, Kerrie E. Wiley, Anita E. Heywood, Robert Booy, Harunor Rashid
Pages: 147 - 155
This study examines the feasibility of using a smartphone application (app) to conduct surveys among travellers during the Hajj pilgrimage, where the use of apps has not been evaluated for infectious disease surveillance. A longitudinal study was conducted among pilgrims at the Hajj 2014 using an iPhone...

The Hajj 2019 Vaccine Requirements and Possible New Challenges

Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq, Ziad A. Memish
Pages: 147 - 152
Each year millions of pilgrims perform the annual Hajj from more than 180 countries around the world. This is one of the largest mass gathering events and may result in the occurrence and spread of infectious diseases. As such, there are mandatory vaccinations for the pilgrims such as meningococcal vaccines....
Research Article

Prescribing Patterns for Acute Respiratory Infections in Children in Primary Health Care Centers, Makkah Al Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia

M.H. Shaheen, M.I. Siddiqui, H.A. Jokhdar, A. Hassan-Hussein, M.A. Garout, S.M. Hafiz, M.M. Alshareef, A.M. Falemban, A.A. Neveen, A.A. Nermeen
Pages: 149 - 153
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a major public health problem and one of the commonest reasons for visiting primary health care centers (PHC). In developing countries, seventy-five percent of the cases are treated with antibiotics, although the majority are caused by viral infection. Our aim was...

COVID-19 Pandemic: Need of the Hour – A Course Correction, Restructuring & Review of our Policies – An Indian Perspective

K. Vishak Acharya, Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan, Priya Rathi, A Shreenivasa
Pages: 150 - 154
The world stunned by a pandemic of such cataclysmic scale is reeling under the joint burden of health impact unleashed by the diseases and the strain on the economy. Glaring shortfalls and inconsistencies in strategies to combat the pandemic have surfaced worldwide irrespective of the country’s economic...
Research Article

Incidence of acute-onset atrial fibrillation correlates with air temperature. Results of a nine-year survey

Ivan Comelli, Jayme Ferro, Giuseppe Lippi, Denis Comelli, Elisabetta Sartori, Gianfranco Cervellin
Pages: 151 - 157
Some diseases, such as renal colic, stroke, and myocardial infarction, correlate with seasonality and microclimatic variations. Although evidence is limited and controversial, a correlation between acute-onset atrial fibrillation (AAF) and seasonality has been previously reported. In order to elucidate...
Research Article

Occlusal characteristics and prevalence of associated dental anomalies in the primary dentition

Seema Lochib, K.R. Indushekar, Bhavna Gupta Saraf, Neha Sheoran, Divesh Sardana
Pages: 151 - 157
Introduction: Morphological variations in primary dentition are of great concern to a pediatric dentist as it may pose clinical problems like dental caries, delayed exfoliation and also anomalies in the permanent dentition, such as impaction of successors, supernumerary teeth, permanent double teeth...
Research Article

Syphilis Testing among Men Who Have Had Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Tests, United States

Guoyu Tao, Thomas A. Peterman, Thomas L. Gift, Melinda B. Nye
Pages: 153 - 157
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends syphilis screening at least annually for sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM). The objective of this study is to assess the frequency of MSM testing for syphilis and how syphilis test results compared with results of rectal gonorrhea...
Research Article

Utility of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay for Diagnosis of Pediatric Tuberculosis Under Programmatic Conditions in India

Rakesh Yadav, Pankaj Vaidya, Joseph L Mathew, Sanjay Verma, Rajiv Khaneja, Priyanka Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar, Meenu Singh, Sunil Sethi
Pages: 153 - 156
Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in children still remains a challenge in developing countries. We analyze the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of pediatric TB under programmatic conditions. We retrospectively analyzed the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay from February 2016 to March...
Research Article

Adult Children’s Migration and Well-being of Left Behind Nepalese Elderly Parents

Saruna Ghimire, Devendra Raj Singh, Dhirendra Nath, Eva M. Jeffers, Maheshor Kaphle
Pages: 154 - 161
The objective of this study is to assess whether adult children’s migration is associated with overall well-being of left-behind elderly parents in Nepal. A cross-sectional house-to-house survey was conducted among 260 community-dwelling elderly residents of Krishnapur municipality, Nepal. Binary logistic...
Research Article

Determination of carbapenem resistance mechanism in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients, in Tehran, Iran

Akbar Mirsalehian, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki, Morovat Taherikalani, Fereshteh Jabalameli, Mohammad Emaneini
Pages: 155 - 159
Carbapenems are the most important therapeutic options that effect against serious infections caused by multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA) isolates. Carbapenems resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa are increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the carbapenem resistance...
Research Article

Symptoms and risk factors for stroke in a community-based observational sample in Viet Nam

Annette L. Fitzpatrick, Quang Van Ngo, Kiet A. Ly, Thanh G.N. Ton, WT Longstreth, Tung T. Vo, Kristen Heitzinger, Chien H. Pham, David L. Tirschwell
Pages: 155 - 163
Background: Viet Nam is experiencing a health transition from infectious to chronic disease. Data on cardiovascular diseases, including strokes, are limited. Methods: Data were randomly collected from six communities in Da Nang, Viet Nam, on participant demographics, medical history, blood pressure,...

The Recombination Potential between SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV from Cross-Species Spill-over Infections

Abdulrahim A. Sajini, Almohanad A. Alkayyal, Fathi A. Mubaraki
Pages: 155 - 159
Countries in the Middle-East (ME) are tackling two corona virus outbreaks simultaneously, Middle-Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the current Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Both viruses infect the same host (humans) and the same cell (type-II alveolar...
Research Article

Bayesian lead time estimation for the Johns Hopkins Lung Project data

Hyejeong Jang, Seongho Kim, Dongfeng Wu
Pages: 157 - 163
Problem statement: Lung cancer screening using X-rays has been controversial for many years. A major concern is whether lung cancer screening really brings any survival benefits, which depends on effective treatment after early detection. The problem was analyzed from a different point of view and estimates...
Research Article

Evaluation of medication adherence in Lebanese hypertensive patients

Mohammad Yassine, Amal Al-Hajje, Sanaa Awada, Samar Rachidi, Salam Zein, Wafa Bawab, Mayssam Bou Zeid, Maya El Hajj, Pascale Salameh
Pages: 157 - 167
Controlling hypertension is essential in cardiovascular diseases. Poor medication adherence is associated with poor disease outcomes, waste of healthcare resources, and contributes to reduced blood pressure control. This study evaluates treatment adherence to antihypertensive therapy in Lebanese hypertensive...
Research Article

Predictors of Quality of Life in Transfusion-dependent Thalassemia Patients Based on the PRECEDE Model: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

Mina Maheri, Alireza Rohban, Roya Sadeghi, Hamid Joveini
Pages: 157 - 163
This study aimed to determine the predictors of Quality of Life (QoL) in Transfusion-Dependent Thalassemia (TDT) patients based on PRECEDE (Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation) model. This cross-sectional analytical study was performed on 389 TDT...
Research Article

Acute Pancreatitis: An Exploratory, Cross-sectional, Single-center Study of the Epidemiological Features of the Disease in a Sample of Saudi Patients

Abed Al Lehibi, Mohammad Abdullah Wani, Abdullah Al Mtawa, Shameem Ahmad, Tauseef Azhar, Khalid Al Sayari, Abdullah Al Khathlan, Ahmad Al Eid, Adel Qutub, Ahmad Al Ghamdi, Areej Al Balkhi
Pages: 158 - 162
Epidemiological studies on Acute Pancreatitis (AP) are significantly scarce in the Saudi Arabian Literature. In this paper, we aim to explore the current trends of AP in a sample of Saudi patients. This is a cross-sectional study in which we reviewed AP-related admissions from 2014 to 2017. Data collected...
Research Article

Acceptability of, and willingness to pay for, community health insurance in rural India

Ankit Jain, Selva Swetha, Zeena Johar, Ramesh Raghavan
Pages: 159 - 167
Objectives: To understand the acceptability of, and willingness to pay for, community health insurance coverage among residents of rural India. Methods: We conducted a mixed methods study of 33 respondents located in 8 villages in southern India. Interview domains focused on health-seeking behaviors...
Research Article

Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and molecular typing of salmonella typhi isolated from patients with typhoid fever in Lebanon

Souha S. Kanj, Zeina A. Kanafani, Marwa Shehab, Nisreen Sidani, Tania Baban, Kedak Baltajian, Ghenwa K. Dakdouki, Mohamad Zaatari, George F. Araj, Rima Hanna Wakim, Ghassan Dbaibo, Ghassan M. Matar
Pages: 159 - 165
The objective of this study was to examine the epidemiology and the clinical manifestations of typhoid fever as well as the susceptibility and strain relatedness of Salmonella typhi isolates in Lebanon from 2006 to 2007. A total of 120 patients with typhoid fever were initially identified from various...
Research Article

Trends in lung cancer incidence in Lebanon by gender and histological type over the period 2005–2008

Sally Temraz, Maya Charafeddine, Deborah Mukherji, Ali Shamseddine
Pages: 161 - 167
Introduction: Lung cancer incidence rates, overall and by histologic subtypes, vary substantially by gender and smoking. This study’s aim was to review data regarding trends in the number of cases of different lung-cancer histologies and relate these to smoking habits by gender in Lebanon. Materials...
Research Article

Serological Detection of Ebola Virus Exposures in Native Non-human Primates of Southern Nigeria

B.N. Ogunro, B.O. Olugasa, E.J. Verschoor, A.O. Olarinmoye, I. Theyse, H. Niphuis
Pages: 162 - 170
Ebola viruses (family: Filoviridae) are the cause of Ebola virus disease (EVD), a highly fatal illness characterised by haemorrhagic fever syndrome in both humans and non-human primates (NHPs). West Africa was the epicentre of the 2013–2015 EVD epidemic which caused the death of over 11,000 people, including...
Research Article

Incidence and Causes of Perinatal Mortality in Georgia

Tinatin Manjavidze, Charlotta Rylander, Finn Egil Skjeldestad, Nata Kazakhashvili, Erik Eik Anda
Pages: 163 - 168
Georgia has one of the highest perinatal mortality rates (i.e., stillbirths and early neonatal deaths combined) in Europe. The Georgian Birth Registry was started in 2016 to provide data for preventive measures of maternal and child health. In this study, we aim to determine the incidence of perinatal...
Research Article

Early Initiation of ARV Therapy Among TB–HIV Patients in Indonesia Prolongs Survival Rates!

Siti Maemun, Nina Mariana, Adria Rusli, Renti Mahkota, Tri Bayu Purnama
Pages: 164 - 167
Background: The HIV epidemic remains a public health problem with rising tuberculosis (TB) numbers around the world. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (ART) is essential to increase the survival of patients with TB–HIV coinfection. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ARV treatment initiation...
Review Article

Preventive Measures and Management of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in Adult Intensive Care Units in Saudi Arabia

Najla A. Obaid
Pages: 164 - 168
Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) has been studied worldwide as part of device-related healthcare infection. CAUTI is one of the most commonly reported infections in the literature, which occurs during clinical practice in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and non-ICU departments. Many studies...
Review Article

Growth and inactivation of Salmonella at low refrigerated storage temperatures and thermal inactivation on raw chicken meat and laboratory media: Mixed effect meta-analysis

Hanan Smadi, Jan M. Sargeant, Harry S. Shannon, Parminder Raina
Pages: 165 - 179
Growth and inactivation regression equations were developed to describe the effects of temperature on Salmonella concentration on chicken meat for refrigerated temperatures (⩽10 °C) and for thermal treatment temperatures (55–70 °C). The main objectives were: (i) to compare Salmonella growth/inactivation...
Research Article

Prevalence and characteristics of community carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Malta

Jeanesse Scerri, Stefan Monecke, Michael A. Borg
Pages: 165 - 173
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study...
Research Article

Cardiovascular risk factors in semi-urban communities in southwest Nigeria: Patterns and prevalence

Rotimi Oluyombo, Michael A. Olamoyegun, Oluwasegun Olaifa, Sandra O. Iwuala, Oluwole A. Babatunde
Pages: 167 - 174
Introduction: Over 80% of cardiovascular deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries; most of these deaths are due to modifiable risk factors. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence and pattern of major cardiovascular risk factors in both men and women older than 18 years. Methods: This...
Research Article

Care-Related Quality of Life of Caregivers of Beta-Thalassemia Major Children: An Epidemiological Study in Eastern India

Bijit Biswas, Narendra Nath Naskar, Keya Basu, Aparajita Dasgupta, Rivu Basu, Bobby Paul
Pages: 168 - 177
Caregivers are the persons who provide care at the time of distress or illness. They face many stress and strain to provide the best possible medical care for their children. There are very few studies that explored the care-related quality of life (CarerQoL) of the caregivers of thalassemic children...
Research Article

The prevalence and association of stress with sleep quality among medical students

Abdullah I. Almojali, Sami A. Almalki, Ali S. Alothman, Emad M. Masuadi, Meshal K. Alaqeel
Pages: 169 - 174
Introduction: Medical students tend to reduce their sleep, in an effort to adjust and cope with their workload and stressful environment. This study estimated the prevalence of and the relationship between poor sleep quality and stress among medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was...
Research Article

Coverage of vitamin A supplementation and deworming during Malezi Bora in Kenya

Paloma C. Clohossey, Heather I. Katcher, Geoffrey O. Mogonchi, Nancy Nyagoha, Marissa C. Isidro, Evelyn Kikechi, Edgar E.V. Okoth, Jessica L. Blankenship
Pages: 169 - 176
Twice-yearly child health weeks are an effective way of reaching children with essential child survival services in developing countries. In Kenya, child health weeks, or Malezi Bora, were restructured in 2007 from an outreach-based delivery structure to a health facility-based delivery structure to...
Research Article

Prevalence of Lebanese stroke survivors: A comparative pilot study

Nathalie Lahoud, Pascale Salameh, Nadine Saleh, Hassan Hosseini
Pages: 169 - 176
Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and its late burden has mainly been attributable to developing countries. Lebanon is one of these countries where epidemiological studies on stroke burden are scarce but necessary. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence...
Research Article

Learning from the Epidemiological Response to the 2014/15 Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak

Maya Holding, Chikwe Ihekweazu, James MacNaughton Stuart, Isabel Oliver
Pages: 169 - 175
A large international response was needed to bring the 2014/15 West African Ebola virus disease outbreak under control. This study sought to learn lessons from this epidemic to strengthen the response to future outbreaks of international significance by identifying priorities for future epidemiology...
Review Article

Epidemiology and the Magnitude of Coronary Artery Disease and Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Narrative Review

Udaya Ralapanawa, Ramiah Sivakanesan
Pages: 169 - 177
Background: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the foremost single cause of mortality and loss of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) globally. A large percentage of this burden is found in low and middle income countries. This accounts for nearly 7 million deaths and 129 million DALYs annually and...
Research Article

An Estimation of the Burden of Sports Injuries among African Adolescents

Drake G. LeBrun, Julius del Rosario, John D. Kelly, Sherry M. Wren, David A. Spiegel, Nyengo Mkandawire, Richard A. Gosselin, Adam L. Kushner
Pages: 171 - 175
The extent to which sports injuries contribute to the burden of injury among adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is unknown. The goal of this study was to estimate the incidence of sports injuries among adolescents in Africa. Data from the World Health Organization Global School-Based...
Research Article

Impact of the Family Health Program on gastroenteritis in children in Bahia, Northeast Brazil: An analysis of primary care-sensitive conditions

Laura J. Monahan, Gregory S. Calip, Patricia M. Novo, Mark Sherstinsky, Mildred Casiano, Eduardo Mota, Inês Dourado
Pages: 175 - 185
In seeking to provide universal health care through its primary care-oriented Family Health Program, Brazil has attempted to reduce hospitalization rates for preventable illnesses such as childhood gastroenteritis. We measured rates of Primary Care-sensitive Hospitalizations and evaluated the impact...
Research Article

Frequency of multi-drug resistance and mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Punjab state of India

Ritu Singhal, Jyoti Arora, Grish C. Sah, Manpreet Bhalla, Rohit Sarin, Vithal Prasad Myneedu
Pages: 175 - 180
Data regarding prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and associated common mutations is scarce from Punjab region. The study was designed to determine rate of MDR-TB among presumptive MDR-TB from Punjab and mutation patterns using GenoType MTBDRplus assay. Total of 812 consecutive...
Research Article

Efficacy of prophylactic dexamethasone in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting

Leila Sekhavat, Robab Davar, Shekoufeh Behdad
Pages: 175 - 179
Objective: Many trials have been conducted with regard to the relative benefits of prophylactic anti-emetic interventions given alone or in combination, yet the results remain unknown. This study reviewed the efficacy of a single prophylactic dose of dexamethasone on postoperative nausea or vomiting...
Research Article

The Effect of a Regimen of Antifungal Cream Use on Episodes of Acute Adenolymphangitis (ADL) among Lymphedema Patients: An Application Using Marginal Structural Models

K.E. Mues, M. Klein, D.G. Kleinbaum, W.D. Flanders, L.M. Fox
Pages: 176 - 182
Episodes of adenolymphangitis (ADL) are a recurrent clinical aspect of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and a risk factor for progression of lymphedema. Inter-digital entry lesions, often found on the web spaces between the toes of those suffering from lymphedema, have been shown to contribute to the occurrence...
Research Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases among Bangladeshi Adults: Findings from a Cross-sectional Study

Fouzia Khanam, Md. Belal Hossain, Sabuj Kanti Mistry, Kaosar Afsana, Mahfuzar Rahman
Pages: 176 - 184
Ever rising prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) is a major challenge for the health sector in Bangladesh. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of CVD and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with it in Bangladesh. The data were collected through a cross-sectional survey following...
Research Article

HIV status, knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and antenatal care use among Ethiopian women

Ida Sahlu, Chanelle J. Howe, Melissa A. Clark, Brandon D.L. Marshall
Pages: 177 - 184
Objective: To determine whether HIV status and knowledge of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV are associated with antenatal care (ANC) use. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey among women aged 15–49 years who agreed to HIV testing and who reported...
Research Article

Extracurricular activities associated with stress and burnout in preclinical medical students

Jawad Fares, Zein Saadeddin, Hayat Al Tabosh, Hussam Aridi, Christopher El Mouhayyar, Mohamad Karim Koleilat, Monique Chaaya, Khalil El Asmar
Pages: 177 - 185
This study aims to assess the prevalence of stress and burnout among preclinical medical students in a private university in Beirut, Lebanon, and evaluate the association between extracurricular involvement and stress and burnout relief in preclinical medical students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted...
Research Article

Efficacy of DAAs in the Treatment of Chronic HCV: Real-World Data from the Private Health-Care Sector of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Almoutaz Hashim, Fadia Almahdi, Emad Aldin Albaba, Ohoud Barkia, Reem Alkasam, Asmaa Almahmoud, Ahmed Nabil, Ayman Alsulaimani, Mahmoud Mosli
Pages: 178 - 183
Background and Aim: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered a global health challenge that requires urgent interventions for prevention and control. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for HCV-infected patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia...
Research Article

Impact of Population Emigration from Wuhan and Medical Support on COVID-19 Infection in China

Yang Yao, Yao Tian, Jing Zhou, Xin Diao, Ligai Di, Shengyu Wang
Pages: 178 - 185
Background: The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection broken out in Wuhan. We aimed to analyse the impact of medical support and population emigration from Wuhan on the cure rate and mortality of COVID-19 infection in China and to provide early warning on the developmental trend of the...
Research Article

Ground water as the source of an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis

Ana Kovačić, Željko Huljev, Edita Sušić
Pages: 181 - 184
In September 2014, an outbreak of gastroenteritis was reported to the Public Health Institute of Šibenik and Knin County in Croatia. The outbreak occurred in the County center of Šibenik, a town with 50,000 inhabitants, and it lasted for 12 days. An epidemiological investigation suggested a nearby water...
Review Article

Assessing the silent epidemic of malnutrition in Palestinian preschool children

Maria Tsigga, Maria G. Grammatikopoulou
Pages: 181 - 191
Background: The nutritional status of children living under conflict is an important issue. The aim of the present study is to review all available data on malnutrition in preschool Palestinian children and provide objective results concerning the epidemic of malnutrition. Methods: The literature for...
Research Article

A cluster-randomised controlled trial to test the efficacy of facemasks in preventing respiratory viral infection among Hajj pilgrims

Mandy Wang, Osamah Barasheed, Harunor Rashid, Robert Booy, Haitham El Bashir, Elizabeth Haworth, Iman Ridda, Edward C. Holmes, Dominic E. Dwyer, Jonathan Nguyen-Van-Tam, Ziad A. Memish, Leon Heron
Pages: 181 - 189
Background: Cost-effective interventions are needed to control the transmission of viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in mass gatherings. Facemasks are a promising preventive measure, however, previous studies on the efficacy of facemasks have been inconclusive. This study proposes a large-scale...
Research Article

Self-rated Health Among Saudi Women: Association with Morbidity, Lifestyle, and Psychosocial Factors

Hoda Jradi, Zuhaa Alharbi, Yasmeen Mohammad
Pages: 183 - 188
Self-rated health (SRH) is an essential global measure of general health and quality of life, and a predictor of the mortality and morbidity of populations. We assessed the SRH and identified associated factors among women in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, using a cross-sectional survey conducted...
Research Article

Effectiveness of Oseltamivir Prophylaxis in Influenza Outbreaks in Residential Aged Care

Mithilesh Dronavalli, Heidi Lord, Kate Alexander, Leng Boonwaat, Narugopal Pal, Stephanie Mahalia Fletcher-Lartey
Pages: 184 - 189
Influenza outbreaks in Aged Care Facilities (ACFs) can lead to hospitalizations and deaths. Influenza can spread rapidly through ACFs if precautionary measures are not taken. Along with influenza vaccination and precautionary hygiene measures, Oseltamivir Prophylaxis (OP) may be effective in reducing...
Research Article

Is Google Trends a reliable tool for digital epidemiology? Insights from different clinical settings

Gianfranco Cervellin, Ivan Comelli, Giuseppe Lippi
Pages: 185 - 189
Internet-derived information has been recently recognized as a valuable tool for epidemiological investigation. Google Trends, a Google Inc. portal, generates data on geographical and temporal patterns according to specified keywords. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of Google Trends...
Research Article

MicroResearch: Finding sustainable local health solutions in East Africa through small local research studies

N.E. MacDonald, R. Bortolussi, J. Kabakyenga, S. Pemba, B. Estambale, K.H.M. Kollmann, R. Odoi Adome, M. Appleton
Pages: 185 - 193
Background: Sub-Saharan African countries have urged grassroots input to improve research capacity. In East Africa, MicroResearch is fostering local ability to find sustainable solutions for community health problems. At 5 years, the following reports its progress. Methods: The MicroResearch program...
Research Article

Reservoir Chlorination of the Local Well–Tank–Faucet Systems is a Rapid and Efficient Tool for Controlling Water-related Diseases: Pathogens’ Load-clinical Response Rate Correlation

Alaaddin Salih, Dafalla Alam-Elhuda
Pages: 185 - 190
Chlorination is a chemical method for water disinfection that has been proved to be highly effective in controlling waterborne diarrheal diseases. Most studies have focused on wells’ chlorination or later at household level, whereas there have been relatively few researches evaluating the treatment of...
Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge, Perceptions and Perceived Risk Concerning COVID-19 in Pakistan

Ayesha Haque, Sadaf Mumtaz, Rafia Mumtaz, Farheen Masood, Hudebia Allah Buksh, Amal Ahmed, Osama Khattak
Pages: 186 - 193
The COVID-19 pandemic is one of unmatched scale and severity. A continued state of crisis has been met with poor public adherence to preventive measures and difficulty implementing public health policy. This study aims to identify and evaluate the factors underlying such a response. Thus, it assesses...

Erratum to “Predictors of protective behaviors among American travelers to the 2009 Hajj” [J. Epidemiol Global Health 3 (2013) 187–196]

V. Balaban, W. Stauffer, A. Hammad, M. Afgarshe, M. Abd-Alla, Q. Ahmed, Z. Memish, J. Saba, E. Harton, G. Palumbo, N. Marano
Pages: 187 - 187
Research Article

A cohort study of chronic diseases for Mongolian people: Outline with baseline data of the Moncohort study

Tsogzolbaatar Enkh-Oyun, Dambadarjaa Davaalkham, Kazuhiko Kotani, Yasuko Aoyama, Satoshi Tsuboi, Ryusuke Ae, Gombojav Davaa, Dayan Angarmurun, Nanjid Khuderchuluun, Yosikazu Nakamura
Pages: 187 - 196
Many Mongolian people suffer from non-communicable chronic diseases. In order to plan preventive strategies against such diseases, we designed a community-based prospective cohort study of chronic diseases, called the Moncohort study, in Mongolia. This is the first nationwide large-scale cohort study...
Research Article

Prevalence and Genetic Analysis of α- and β-Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Anemia in Southwest Iran

Forozan H. Nezhad, Khojasteh H. Nezhad, Parastoo M. Choghakabodi, Bijan Keikhaei
Pages: 189 - 195
This prospective study assessed the prevalence and genetic analysis of α- and β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia (SCA) in Southwest Iran. Hematological indices were measured in 17,581 couples living in Khuzestan Province, Southwest Iran. Individuals with mean corpuscular volume <80, mean corpuscular...

Predictors of protective behaviors among American travelers to the 2009 Hajj

V. Balaban, W. Stauffer, A. Hammad, M. Afgarshe, M. Abd-Alla, Q. Ahmed, Z. Memish, J. Saba, E. Harton, G. Palumbo, N. Marano
Pages: 189 - 190
Research Article

Occupational stress, anxiety and depression among Egyptian teachers

Dalia Desouky, Heba Allam
Pages: 191 - 198
Occupational stress (OS) among teachers predispose to depression and anxiety. No study was done to assess these problems among Egyptian teachers. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of OS, depression and anxiety among Egyptian teachers. A cross sectional study was done on 568 Egyptian teachers....
Research Article

Work productivity among adults with varied Body Mass Index: Results from a Canadian population-based survey

Arnaldo Sanchez Bustillos, Kris Gregory Vargas, Raul Gomero-Cuadra
Pages: 191 - 199
Background: The relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and work productivity, including absenteeism and presenteeism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine work productivity among adults with varied BMI using population-based data. Methods: Data source was the 2009–2010 Canadian...
Research Article

The Implementation of Early Detection in Tuberculosis Contact Investigation to Improve Case Finding

I Wayan Gede Artawan Eka Putra, Ni Made Dian Kurniasari, Ni Putu Eka Purnama Dewi, I Ketut Suarjana, I Made Kerta Duana, I Ketut Hari Mulyawan, Pandu Riono, Bachti Alisjahbana, Ari Probandari, Hari Basuki Notobroto, Chatarina Umbul Wahyuni
Pages: 191 - 197
The early detection of Tuberculosis (TB) among TB contacts is a strategy to find TB cases in earlier stage and to stop the transmission. This study aimed to assess the implementation of early detection in TB contact investigation to improve TB case finding. This was an operational research study conducted...
Research Article

Hand rub dose needed for a single disinfection varies according to product: A bias in benchmarking using indirect hand hygiene indicator

Raphaële Girard, Martine Aupee, Martine Erb, Anne Bettinger, Alice Jouve
Pages: 193 - 198
Background: The 3 ml volume currently used as the hand hygiene (HH) measure has been explored as the pertinent dose for an indirect indicator of HH compliance. A multicenter study was conducted in order to ascertain the required dose using different products. Method: The average contact duration before...

The Precious Commodity of Time and Sub-Saharan Africa’s Success in Keeping COVID-19 at Bay

Janet M. Wojcicki
Pages: 194 - 197
Most sub-Saharan African countries acted early and aggressively in response to the WHO COVID-19 warning by closing schools, international borders, limiting domestic travel and restricting large gatherings. The six most populous sub-Saharan African countries, at the beginning of July 2020 with the exception...
Research Article

Population Size Estimation of Female Sex Workers in Hai Phong, Vietnam: Use of Three Source Capture–Recapture Method

Ly Thuy Nguyen, Shreya Patel, Nga Thi Nguyen, Hoa Hoang Gia, Henry F. Raymond, Van Thi Hai Hoang, Abu S. Abdul-Quader
Pages: 194 - 199
Introduction: A study was conducted in three districts in Hai Phong province, Vietnam to estimate the population size of the Female Sex Workers (FSW) in June–July 2019. Methods: The procedures included selection of three districts, compilation of a list of accessible venues where FSW congregate, distribution...
Research Article

Trend of application of World Health Organization control strategy of tuberculosis in Egypt

Amal Saad-Hussein, Asmaa M. Mohammed
Pages: 195 - 202
World Health Organization (WHO) control policy for tuberculosis (TB) includes Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine at birth, case detection, and treatment of cases with directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS). This policy has been applied through the Ministry of Health and Population in Egypt...
Research Article

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of 50 Patients with Surgically Treated Cystic Echinococcosis from Basrah Province, Iraq

Mohanad Faris Abdulhameed, Ian Duncan Robertson, Suzan Ali Al-Azizz, Ihab Habib
Pages: 196 - 202
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is recognised worldwide as a neglected disease of public health concern, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of this study were to describe, using a questionnaire survey, the characteristics, attitudes, knowledge, and practices of patients with...
Research Article

Anthropometric risk factors and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population – A national survey

Abdalla Abdelwahid Saeed, Nasser Abdurahman Al-Hamdan
Pages: 197 - 204
This cross-sectional study aimed at determining the anthropometric predictors of hypertension among adults in Saudi Arabia. Multi-stage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. The average of three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer was considered the...
Research Article

Verification of measles elimination in Australia: Application of World Health Organization regional guidelines

H.F. Gidding, N.V. Martin, V. Stambos, T. Tran, A. Dey, G.K. Dowse, H.A. Kelly, D.N. Durrheim, S.B. Lambert
Pages: 197 - 209
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) Guidelines on verification of measles elimination were established in 2012. This article outlines Australia’s approach to addressing the guideline’s five lines of evidence, which led to formal verification of elimination by...
Research Article

Prevalence of Glaucoma in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Nahlah Bagabas, Wafaa Ghazali, Mariam Mukhtar, Ibrahim AlQassas, Roah Merdad, Ashfaque Maniyar, Nawaf Almarzouki, Halima Afreen, Osama Badeeb, Siraj Wali
Pages: 198 - 203
To determine the prevalence of glaucoma in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and compare it with that of patients without OSA. Patients investigated for OSA using polysomnography at the sleep center of King Abdulaziz University Hospital were invited to participate in this cross-sectional case series...
Research Article

Predictors of past quit attempts and duration of abstinence among cigarette smokers

N. Layoun, S. Hallit, M. Waked, Z. Aoun Bacha, I. Godin, A. Leveque, M. Dramaix, P. Salameh
Pages: 199 - 206
Objective: Despite the widespread awareness of the harms of smoking, millions continue to smoke around the world partly due to the difficulty it takes to quit smoking. Identifying the factors associated with making quit attempts is an essential pillar to reach successful quitting. The purpose of this...
Research Article

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and vaccines: Knowledge, attitude and perception among female students at the University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

Christian Chigozie Makwe, Rose Ihuoma Anorlu, Kofoworola Abimbola Odeyemi
Pages: 199 - 206
Aim: This study sought to determine knowledge of and attitude towards human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV-related diseases and HPV vaccines among female undergraduate students at the University of Lagos. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was administered between May and July 2010, to...
Research Article

Comparison of Predictive Models and Impact Assessment of Lockdown for COVID-19 over the United States

Olusola S. Makinde, Abiodun M. Adeola, Gbenga J. Abiodun, Olubukola O. Olusola-Makinde, Aceves Alejandro
Pages: 200 - 207
The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a worldwide threat to community health, social stability, and economic development. Since the first case was recorded on December 29, 2019, in Wuhan of China, the disease has rapidly extended to other nations of the world to claim many lives, especially...
Short Communication

Terrorism-related trauma in Africa, an increasing problem

Maryam Alfa-Wali, Kaji Sritharan, Mira Mehes, Fizan Abdullah, Shahnawaz Rasheed
Pages: 201 - 203
Global terrorist activities have increased significantly over the past decade. The impact of terrorism-related trauma on the health of individuals in low- and middle-income countries is under-reported. Trauma management in African countries in particular is uncoordinated, with little or no infrastructure...

Helmet Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in the Treatment of COVID-19 Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure could be an Effective Strategy: A Feasibility Study

Abdulrahman Alharthy, Fahad Faqihi, AlFateh Noor, Ibrahim Soliman, Peter G. Brindley, Dimitrios Karakitsos, Ziad A. Memish
Pages: 201 - 203
Research Article

Hepatitis A and E Outbreak Surveillance during 2015–2017 in Kashmir, India: Is the Water to Blame?

Syed Manzoor Kadri, Saleem-ur-Rehman, Kausar Rehana, Despoina-Rafailia Benetou, Dar Farooz Ahmad, Afshan Abdullah, Vijay Kumar Chattu
Pages: 203 - 207
Waterborne diseases, such as hepatitis A and E, are a major public health concern in most developing countries, indicating the need for proper outbreak prevention, surveillance, and timely management. This study presents data regarding the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis A...
Research Article

Chikungunya outbreak in Al-Hudaydah, Yemen, 2011: Epidemiological characterization and key lessons learned for early detection and control

Mamunur Rahman Malik, Abraham Mnzava, Emad Mohareb, Alia Zayed, Abdulhakeem Al Kohlani, Ahmed A.K. Thabet, Hassan El Bushra
Pages: 203 - 211
Little is known about the occurrence of chikungunya fever in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). In January 2011, the Ministry of Public Health and Population (MoPH&P) of Yemen reported to WHO an increasing number of “dengue-like” acute febrile illnesses of unknown...
Research Article

Awareness and Practice of Vaccination of Chronic Hemodialysis Patients by Specialist Nephrology Practitioners in Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Survey

Akinwumi Ayodeji Akinbodewa, Oluseyi Ademola Adejumo
Pages: 204 - 209
Vaccination of hemodialysis (HD) patients reduces mortality and infection transmission in dialysis units, but its practice is perceivably poor in Nigeria with no study quantifying the level of awareness and practice to date. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study on nephrologists was designed....
Research Article

Population Risk Factors for COVID-19 Mortality in 93 Countries

Muhammad Jawad Hashim, Ahmed R. Alsuwaidi, Gulfaraz Khan
Pages: 204 - 208
Death rates due to COVID-19 pandemic vary considerably across regions and countries. Case Mortality Rates (CMR) per 100,000 population are more reliable than case-fatality rates per 100 test-positive cases, which are heavily dependent on the extent of viral case testing carried out in a country. We aimed...
Research Article

Factors associated with breast cancer in Puerto Rican women

Luisa Morales, Carolina Alvarez-Garriga, Jaime Matta, Carmen Ortiz, Yeidyly Vergne, Wanda Vargas, Heidi Acosta, Jonathan Ramírez, Julyann Perez-Mayoral, Manuel Bayona
Pages: 205 - 215
Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer afflicting Puerto Rican women and accounts for more cancer-related deaths in this population than any other cancer. Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, family history, and lifestyle data, as well as DNA repair capacity (DRC), were compared in...
Short Communication

Tuberculosis screening among Bolivian sex workers and their children

Silvia S. Chiang, Jessica K. Paulus, Chi-Cheng Huang, P.K. Newby, Dora Castellón Quiroga, Renée Boynton-Jarrett, Lara Antkowiak
Pages: 205 - 210
Bolivian sex workers were more likely than other employed women to report tuberculosis screening only if they reported HIV screening. Of all women with household tuberculosis exposure, <40% reported screening for themselves or their children. Coupling tuberculosis screening with sex workers’ mandatory...
Letter to Editor

Frequency and implications of ofloxacin resistance among previously treated tuberculosis patients

Jyoti Arora, Gavish Kumar, Ajoy Kumar Verma, Manpreet Bhalla, Ritu Singhal, Rohit Sarin, Vithal Prasad Myneedu
Pages: 207 - 208
Research Article

Rates of diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders within a prevalent population of community-dwelling elderly people in sub-Saharan Africa

Felicity Dewhurst, Matthew J. Dewhurst, William K. Gray, Paul Chaote, William Howlett, Golda Orega, Richard W. Walker
Pages: 207 - 214
Background: The prevalence of neurological disorders in those aged 70 years and over in the Hai district of Tanzania has been previously reported. The following research reports rates of patient’s: treatment seeking, diagnosis and treatment within this prevalent population. Methods: All people identified...