The Effect of Citric Acid (C6H8O7) and Flow Rate to the Growth and Transformation of Crystal Phase of CaCO3
Christian Wely Wullur, Peter Sahupala
Christian Wely Wullur
Available Online December 2018.
- https://doi.org/10.2991/icst-18.2018.59How to use a DOI?
- component; CaCO3 scaling; flow rate; temperature; citric acid; induction time; crystal phase
- Scale formation, especially of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is a serious problem faced by many industrial processes, such as chemical, desalination and oil industries. This paper discusses crystallization scaling of CaCO3 in pipes. The crystallizing solution was made by mixing equimolar solution of CaCl2 and Na2CO3. The parameters studied were the solution flow rates 40mL/min, temperature (30, 40, 50oC) and citric acid (0.00, 5.00, 10.00 ppm) as additives for the scaling inhibition. The CaCO3 scale formation process has monitored the change of conductivity the solution out of coupons. The scale formed was characterized by SEM, EDS and XRD. This conductivity decline period, known as induction time varied from 30 min to 46 min depending on the parameters studied. Higher flow rates and temperature resulted in more CaCO3 scale mass, indicating that these two variables may promote CaCO3 crystallization. The higher citric acid concentrations resulted in less mass of the scale and could reduce the mass down to 88%. Therefore, it can be postulated that citric acid may be an effective additive for CaCO3 crystallization and scaling. SEM and EDS analysis of the scale indicates that the scale was essentially CaCO3. In addition, an XRD test was applied to the scale and proved that the scale consisted of calcite, vaterite and aragonite phases. The scale formed under the influence of citric acid and temperature showed more aragonite phase, indicating that the acid could delay the transformation of CaCO3 crystals into the ultimate stable phase, i.e. calcite.
- Open Access
- This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC license.
Cite this article
TY - CONF AU - Christian Wely Wullur AU - Peter Sahupala PY - 2018/12 DA - 2018/12 TI - The Effect of Citric Acid (C6H8O7) and Flow Rate to the Growth and Transformation of Crystal Phase of CaCO3 BT - Proceedings of the International Conference on Science and Technology (ICST 2018) PB - Atlantis Press SP - 281 EP - 284 SN - 2589-4943 UR - https://doi.org/10.2991/icst-18.2018.59 DO - https://doi.org/10.2991/icst-18.2018.59 ID - Wullur2018/12 ER -