Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Management (INSYMA 2019)

The International Annual Symposium on Management (INSYMA) is an international scientific forum that has been held for 15 years and is entering the 16th organization in 2019. This event invites academicians to contribute current thoughts and research in management and aims to provide a forum for discussion among leading academicians, researchers, students, and practitioners worldwide who are experts in economics and social sciences. INSYMA 2019 is organized by the University of Surabaya, Faculty of Business and Economics, Department of Management and supported by many parties in its implementation.

This year, INSYMA 2019 was held at the Aryaduta Hotel, Manado, Indonesia on 4-6 March 2019 and supported by three co-hosts of Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta, Universitas Bunda Mulia Jakarta, and Tokai University, Japan. The theme of this event is “Re-Drawing your future, The Existing of Dynamic the Firm's Competitive Advantage in Hyper competition”. This theme encompasses research in the fields of financial management, marketing management, human resource management, operation management, entrepreneurship, service management, strategic management, cross-cultural management, and other relevant business topics.

In this INSYMA 2019, the committee received 74 scientific article proposals. All articles then went through a severe review process and only articles that passed the review process were presented at the symposium. After going through the review process, only 55 articles were selected and presented at the INSYMA 2019.

We thank all participants and co-hosts for supporting this event. All works published in the proceedings are expected to contribute to science in management. Hopefully, these proceedings bring valuable knowledge to all of you and we look forward to seeing you in the next INSYMA.

The Editors
Dr. Dudi Anandya
Dr. Werner R. Murhadi
Dr. Erna Andajani