Molecular Detection of Influenza A and B Viruses in Four Consecutive Influenza Seasons 2015–16 to 2018–19 in a Tertiary Center in Western Saudi Arabia
- https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.210427.001How to use a DOI?
- Influenza; molecular; epidemiological; Saudi Arabia
Introduction: Influenza infection poses a significant public health threat. The core for disease prevention and control relies on strengthened surveillance activities, particularly in Saudi Arabia, the country that hosts the largest annual mass gathering event worldwide. This study aimed to assess the molecular and seasonal pattern of influenza virus subtypes in western Saudi Arabia to inform policy decisions on influenza vaccine.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City, western Saudi Arabia. Medical records and surveillance database of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases were reviewed from October 2015 to 2019. A panel of real-time polymerase chain reactions was performed to detect influenza A and B. Extracted RNA from a subset of positive samples was used to determine influenza A subtypes and influenza B lineages.
Results: This study included a total of 1928 patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza infections. Influenza peaks were observed in October each season, with variant predominant strains. Influenza virus subtypes co-circulate with no reports of co-infection. Influenza A(H3N2) was reported in 42% of the cases, then influenza B (30.7%) and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (27.3%). Healthcare workers represented 9.4% of the cases. One-third of the cases (30.4%) were admitted to the hospital with a median admission duration of 4 days. The influenza B viruses were subtyped in 218 cases. Victoria lineage was predominant (64.1%) in 2015 and 2016; however, Yamagata was predominant in the next two consecutive seasons (94.4% and 85.4%, respectively).
Conclusion: The burden due to influenza B may be underestimated with an observed vaccine mismatch. A quadrivalent influenza vaccine is recommended to reduce the health impact associated with influenza B infections. Molecular surveillance of the influenza viruses should be enhanced continuously for a better understanding of the influenza activity and assessment of vaccine effectiveness.
- © 2021 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press International B.V.
- Open Access
- This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).
Cite this article
TY - JOUR AU - Abdulhakeem Althaqafi AU - Fayssal Farahat AU - Asim Alsaedi AU - Majid Alshamrani AU - Moneerah S. Alsaeed AU - Baraa AlhajHussein AU - Sherif A. El-Kafrawy AU - Esam I. Azhar PY - 2021 DA - 2021/05/04 TI - Molecular Detection of Influenza A and B Viruses in Four Consecutive Influenza Seasons 2015–16 to 2018–19 in a Tertiary Center in Western Saudi Arabia JO - Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health SP - 208 EP - 215 VL - 11 IS - 2 SN - 2210-6014 UR - https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.210427.001 DO - https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.210427.001 ID - Althaqafi2021 ER -