Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

Volume 11, Issue 2, June 2021, Pages 208 - 215

Molecular Detection of Influenza A and B Viruses in Four Consecutive Influenza Seasons 2015–16 to 2018–19 in a Tertiary Center in Western Saudi Arabia

Authors
Abdulhakeem Althaqafi1, 2, 3, *, ORCID, Fayssal Farahat2, 3, 4, Asim Alsaedi2, 3, 4, ORCID, Majid Alshamrani4, 5, 6, Moneerah S. Alsaeed7, 8, Baraa AlhajHussein3, 9, ORCID, Sherif A. El-Kafrawy7, 8, ORCID, Esam I. Azhar7, 8, ORCID
1Department of Medicine, Ministry of National Guard – Health Affairs, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
4Department of Infection Prevention and Control, Ministry of National Guard – Health Affairs, Saudi Arabia
5College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
6King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
7Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahad Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
8Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
9Department of Laboratory Medicine, Ministry of National Guard – Health Affairs, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding author. Email: ahthaqafi@yahoo.com
Corresponding Author
Abdulhakeem Althaqafi
Received 6 September 2020, Accepted 2 April 2021, Available Online 4 May 2021.
DOI
https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.210427.001How to use a DOI?
Keywords
Influenza; molecular; epidemiological; Saudi Arabia
Abstract

Introduction: Influenza infection poses a significant public health threat. The core for disease prevention and control relies on strengthened surveillance activities, particularly in Saudi Arabia, the country that hosts the largest annual mass gathering event worldwide. This study aimed to assess the molecular and seasonal pattern of influenza virus subtypes in western Saudi Arabia to inform policy decisions on influenza vaccine.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City, western Saudi Arabia. Medical records and surveillance database of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases were reviewed from October 2015 to 2019. A panel of real-time polymerase chain reactions was performed to detect influenza A and B. Extracted RNA from a subset of positive samples was used to determine influenza A subtypes and influenza B lineages.

Results: This study included a total of 1928 patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza infections. Influenza peaks were observed in October each season, with variant predominant strains. Influenza virus subtypes co-circulate with no reports of co-infection. Influenza A(H3N2) was reported in 42% of the cases, then influenza B (30.7%) and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (27.3%). Healthcare workers represented 9.4% of the cases. One-third of the cases (30.4%) were admitted to the hospital with a median admission duration of 4 days. The influenza B viruses were subtyped in 218 cases. Victoria lineage was predominant (64.1%) in 2015 and 2016; however, Yamagata was predominant in the next two consecutive seasons (94.4% and 85.4%, respectively).

Conclusion: The burden due to influenza B may be underestimated with an observed vaccine mismatch. A quadrivalent influenza vaccine is recommended to reduce the health impact associated with influenza B infections. Molecular surveillance of the influenza viruses should be enhanced continuously for a better understanding of the influenza activity and assessment of vaccine effectiveness.

Copyright
© 2021 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press International B.V.
Open Access
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

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Journal
Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Volume-Issue
11 - 2
Pages
208 - 215
Publication Date
2021/05/04
ISSN (Online)
2210-6014
ISSN (Print)
2210-6006
DOI
https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.210427.001How to use a DOI?
Copyright
© 2021 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press International B.V.
Open Access
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

Cite this article

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Abdulhakeem Althaqafi
AU  - Fayssal Farahat
AU  - Asim Alsaedi
AU  - Majid Alshamrani
AU  - Moneerah S. Alsaeed
AU  - Baraa AlhajHussein
AU  - Sherif A. El-Kafrawy
AU  - Esam I. Azhar
PY  - 2021
DA  - 2021/05/04
TI  - Molecular Detection of Influenza A and B Viruses in Four Consecutive Influenza Seasons 2015–16 to 2018–19 in a Tertiary Center in Western Saudi Arabia
JO  - Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
SP  - 208
EP  - 215
VL  - 11
IS  - 2
SN  - 2210-6014
UR  - https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.210427.001
DO  - https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.210427.001
ID  - Althaqafi2021
ER  -