Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

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403 articles
Corrigendum

Corrigendum to “Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Lebanese Community Pharmacists toward Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease” [J Epidemiol Glob Health, 10(1), Pages 86–95]

Souheil Hallit, Rouba Karen Zeidan, Sylvia Saade, Aline Hajj, Rabih Hallit, Charbel Yahchouchy, Nelly Kheir, Katia Iskandar, Hala Sacre, Pascale Salameh
Research Article

Estimating Catastrophic Costs due to Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Bangladesh

Anita Sharif Chowdhury, Md Shakil Ahmed, Sayem Ahmed, Fouzia Khanam, Fariha Farjana, Saifur Reza, Shayla Islam, Akramul Islam, Jahangir A.M. Khan, Mahfuzar Rahman
To eliminate TB from the country by the year 2030, the Bangladesh National Tuberculosis (TB) Program is providing free treatment to the TB patients since 1993. However, the patients are still to make Out-of-their Pocket (OOP) payment, particularly before their enrollment Directly Observed Treatment Short-course...
Research Article

The Epidemiology of HIV in Oman, 1984–2018: A Nationwide Study from the Middle East

Ali Elgalib, Samir Shah, Adil Al-Wahaibi, Zeyana Al-Habsi, Maha Al-Fouri, Richard Lau, Hanan Al-Kindi, Bader Al-Rawahi, Seif Al-Abri
We used population-based data on all diagnosed people living with Human Immunodeficiency (HIV) reported to the National AIDS Programme in 1984–2018 to describe the HIV epidemiology in Oman. A total of 3060 Omanis were diagnosed with HIV from 1984 to 2018. The proportions of new infections attributed...
Review Article

An Evaluation of Health Policy Implementation for Hajj Pilgrims in Indonesia

Rustika Rustika, Ratih Oemiati, Al Asyary, Tety Rachmawati
Background: For last decades, the mortality rate of hajj pilgrims from Indonesia was between 2.1 and 3.2 per 1000 hajj pilgrims. At the same time, morbidity affected 87% of the elderly (>65 years old), of which 83% faced high risk of health problems. This is a complex problem affecting hajj health...
Research Article

Prevalence and Incidence of Low Back Pain in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Systematic Review

Mai A. Aldera, Caroline M. Alexander, Alison H. McGregor
Study Design: A systematic review. Objective: To identify published studies that assess the prevalence and incidence of Low Back Pain (LBP) in the Saudi Arabian population. Methods: Six electronic databases were searched for articles published between January 1995 and December 2018. Crosssectional...
Research Article

Assessment of Local Health Worker Attitudes toward International Medical Volunteers in Low- and Middle-income Countries: A Global Survey

Crystal Bae, Nehal Naik, Monika Misak, Sean L. Barnes, Avelino C. Verceles, Alfred Papali, Michael T. McCurdy, Lia I. Losonczy
Background: International Medical Volunteers (IMVs) positively and negatively impact host countries, and the goals of their trips may not always align with the interests of the hosts in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). We sought to better understand local physicians’ interest of hosting IMVs...
Research Article

Evaluation of Noninvasive Respiratory Volume Monitoring in the PACU of a Low Resource Kenyan Hospital

Kendall J. Burdick, Muchai Stephen Thuo, Xiaoke Sarah Feng, Matthew S. Shotwell, Joseph J. Schlesinger
This research aims to evaluate the use of the noninvasive respiratory volume monitor (RVM) compared to the standard of care (SOC) in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) of Kijabe Hospital, Kenya. The RVM provides real-time measurements for quantitative monitoring of non-intubated patients. Our evaluation...
Research Article

Epidemiological Profile of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Patients with Digestive Symptoms in Algeria

Houria Kasmi, Koula Doukani, Ahmed Ali, Souhila Tabak, Hasna Bouhenni
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Algerian patients with peptic disorders and evaluate the impact of different epidemiological factors (age, sex, sampling site, presence or absence of H. pylori, and type of pathology related to this...
Research Article

Dietary Intakes, Patterns, and Determinants of Children Under 5 Years from Marginalized Communities in Odisha: A Cross-sectional Study

Shantanu Sharma, Faiyaz Akhtar, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Sunil Mehra
Pre-school age (3–5 years) children are vulnerable to malnutrition due to poor dietary intake, dietary habits, and socio-economic conditions. Children from marginalized families are more vulnerable than non-marginalized families due to limited access to health- and nutrition-related services, besides...
Research Article

Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Epidemiology of Food-borne Botulism in Iran

Mohammad Reza Montazer Khorasan, Mohammad Rahbar, Abed Zahedi Bialvaei, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Fereshte Shahcheraghi, Babak Eshrati
Background: Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by toxins produced by several Clostridium species. This work presents the surveillance results of botulism in Iran, with the distribution of the cases by regions and by vehicle of transmission. Methods: We describe the findings of the Centers...
Research Article

Estimated Number of People who Inject Drugs in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Findings from a Two-survey Capture–Recapture Population Size Estimation Exercise

Nghia Van Khuu, Phuc Duy Nguyen, Giang Tong Le, Hoa Thi Yen Luong, Van Thi Thu Tieu, Hau Phuc Tran, Thuong Vu Nguyen, Meade Morgan, Abu S. Abdul-Quader
Background: HIV/AIDS program managers in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam have always relied on the police reports and the UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package for population size estimation of People Who Inject Drugs (PWID). Methods: We used Respondent-driven Sampling (RDS) to implement a two-source...
Research Article

Does Being Transported by Emergency Medical Services Improve Compliance with the Surviving Sepsis Bundle and Mortality Rate? A Retrospective Cohort Study

Faisal Alhusain, Hanin Alsuwailem, Alanoud Aldrees, Ahad Bugis, Sarah Alzuhairi, Sami Alsulami, Yaseen Arabi, Nawfal Aljerian
Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between patients with severe sepsis or septic shock being transported to the Emergency Department (ED) by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and the compliance with the 3-h sepsis resuscitation bundle [Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC)], and to...
Research Article

Geographic, Subject, and Authorship Trends among LMIC-based Scientific Publications in High-impact Global Health and General Medicine Journals: A 30-Month Bibliometric Analysis

Marium Ghani, Rowan Hurrell, Avelino C. Verceles, Michael T. McCurdy, Alfred Papali
The globalization of medical research and global health’s increasing popularity worldwide have resulted in greater geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic diversity of studies published in the scientific literature. Yet the geographic distribution, authorship representation, and subject trends among Low-/Low-Middle-Income...
Research Article

Improved Access to Diagnostics for Rhodesian Sleeping Sickness around a Conservation Area in Malawi Results in Earlier Detection of Cases and Reduced Mortality

Marshal Lemerani, Fredrick Jumah, Paul Bessell, Sylvain Biéler, Joseph Mathu Ndung’u
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (rHAT) is a zoonotic disease transmitted by tsetse flies from wild and domestic animals. It presents as an acute disease and advances rapidly into a neurological form that can only be treated with melarsoprol, which is associated with a high...
Research Article

HIV Prevalence, Risk Factors for Infection, and Uptake of Prevention, Testing, and Treatment among Female Sex Workers in Namibia

Anna Jonas, Sadhna V. Patel, Frieda Katuta, Andrew D. Maher, Karen M. Banda, Krysta Gerndt, Ismelda Pietersen, Neia Menezes de Prata, Nicholus Mutenda, Tuli Nakanyala, Esme Kisting, Brown Kawana, Ann-Marie Nietschke, Dimitri Prybylski, Willi McFarland, David W. Lowrance
Background: In most settings, Female Sex Workers (FSW) bear a disproportionate burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease worldwide. Representative data to inform the development of behavioral and biomedical interventions for FSW in Namibia have not been published. Objectives: Our objectives...
Review Article

The Increasing Trends in Cases of the Most Common Cancers in Saudi Arabia

Eman Chaudhri, Weam Fathi, Fazal Hussain, Shahrukh K. Hashmi
Background: Cancer epidemiology in Saudi Arabia (SA) differs from that of the USA with respect to types of common malignancies. Hematologic malignancies are among the top five cancers prevalent in SA, including lymphoma and leukemia. Most common malignancies in SA also include breast, thyroid, and colorectal...
Research Article

Magnitude and Reasons for Gaps in Tuberculosis Diagnostic Testing and Treatment Initiation: An Operational Research Study from Dakshina Kannada, South India

Imaad Mohammed Ismail, Akshaya Kibballi Madhukeshwar, Poonam Ramesh Naik, Badarudeen Mohammad Nayarmoole, Srinath Satyanarayana
Background: In India, ensuring all Persons with Presumptive TB (PPTB) undergo TB diagnostic tests and initiating all diagnosed TB patients on treatment are two major implementation challenges. Objectives: In a coastal district of Karnataka state, South India, to (1) determine the number and proportion...
Perspective

Establishing Medical Coverage and Epidemiological Surveillance during the Grand Magal of Touba in Senegal: A Public Health Need

Cheikh Sokhna, Balla Mbacké Mboup, Ndiaw Goumbala, Mamadou Dieng, Ahmadou Bamba Sylla, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola, Philippe Gautret
The Grand Magal is a religious pilgrimage that takes place in Senegal. An estimated 4–5 million individuals yearly gather in the holy city of Touba. Pilgrims comes from the whole Senegal and surrounding countries and from countries outside of Africa where Mouride Senegalese emigrated. It is the largest...
Research Article

Extraintestinal Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Middle Eastern Patients

Heba Adam, Maryam Alqassas, Omar I. Saadah, Mahmoud Mosli
Background and Aims: The Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs), Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC), are gastrointestinal autoimmune disorders with many Extraintestinal Manifestations (EIMs). Previously reported incidences of EIMs in IBD patients have ranged from 10% to 50%. The large variation...
Research Article

Rapid Estimation of Excess Mortality during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Portugal -Beyond Reported Deaths

André Vieira, Vasco Ricoca Peixoto, Pedro Aguiar, Alexandre Abrantes
Background: One month after the first COVID-19 infection was recorded, Portugal counted 18,051 cases and 599 deaths from COVID-19. To understand the overall impact on mortality of the pandemic of COVID-19, we estimated the excess mortality registered in Portugal during the first month of the epidemic,...
Research Article

The Rise of Noncommunicable Diseases in Kenya: An Examination of the Time Trends and Contribution of the Changes in Diet and Physical Inactivity

Edward Michieka Onyango, Benjamin Moranga Onyango
Pages: 1 - 7
This study examined correlations of historical changes in diet and physical inactivity with the rise of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in Kenya. Historical data on diet, wage jobs by industry, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), and morbidity due to NCDs were extracted from Kenya Statistical...
Review Article

Can pervasive sensing address current challenges in global healthcare?

Louis Atallah, Benny Lo, Guang-Zhong Yang
Pages: 1 - 13
Important challenges facing global healthcare include the increase in the number of people affected by escalating healthcare costs, chronic and infectious diseases, the need for better and more affordable elderly care and expanding urbanisation combined with air and water pollution. Recent advances in...
Research Article

Availability of results from clinical research: Failing policy efforts

Tatyana A. Shamliyan, Robert L. Kane
Pages: 1 - 12
Objectives: Trial registration has a great potential to increase research transparency and public access to research results. This study examined the availability of results either in journal publications or in the trial registry from all studies registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. Methods: All 137,612...
Commentary

COVID-19 in the Shadows of MERS-CoV in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Mazin Barry, Maha Al Amri, Ziad A. Memish
Pages: 1 - 3
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has plagued the Middle East since it was first reported in 2012. Recently, at the end of December 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases were reported from Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, linked to a wet seafood market with a new coronavirus identified...
Research Article

Assessing the overuse of antibiotics in children with URTIs in Saudi Arabia: Development of the parental perception on antibiotics scale (PAPA scale)

Arwa Alumran, Xiang-Yu Hou, Cameron Hurst
Pages: 3 - 10
Background: Antibiotic overuse is influenced by several factors that can only be measured using a valid and reliable psychosocial measurement instrument. This study aims to establish translation and early stage validation of an instrument recently developed by this research team to measure factors influencing...
Research Article

Demographics of Pediatric Orbital Lesions: A Tertiary Eye Center Experience in Saudi Arabia

Hind Manaa Alkatan, Faisal Al Marek, Sahar Elkhamary
Pages: 3 - 10
Orbital lesions vary in their classification, incidence, and presentation depending on the age and geographic distribution. Such lesions in the pediatric age group have been studied extensively because of the possibility of faster progression of orbital involvement and the higher risk of morbidity in...
Research Article

Counselling services in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in Delhi, India: An assessment through a modified version of UNICEF-PPTCT tool

Arvind Kumar, Bir Singh, Yadlapalli S. Kusuma
Pages: 3 - 13
The study aims to assess the counselling services provided to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) under the Indian programme of prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV (PPTCT). Five hospitals in Delhi providing PMTCT services were randomly selected. A total of 201 post-test...
Announcement

“Nurses and Midwives: Clean Care Is in Your Hands”: The May 5, 2020, World Health Organization SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands Campaign☆

Alexandra Peters, Nasim Lotfinejad, Chloé Guitart, Alice Simniceanu, Maria Clara Padoveze, Tcheun Borzykowski, Benedetta Allegranzi, Didier Pittet
Pages: 4 - 5
Review Article

Climate change impacts on water salinity and health

Paolo Vineis, Queenie Chan, Aneire Khan
Pages: 5 - 10
It is estimated that 884 million people do not have access to clean drinking water in the world. Increasing salinity of natural drinking water sources has been reported as one of the many problems that affect low-income countries, but one which has not been fully explored. This problem is exacerbated...
Review Article

Are we facing a noncommunicable disease pandemic?

Luke Allen
Pages: 5 - 9
The global boom in premature mortality and morbidity from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) shares many similarities with pandemics of infectious diseases, yet public health professionals have resisted the adoption of this label. It is increasingly apparent that NCDs are actually communicable conditions,...
Review Article

Health-Seeking Behavior of People in Indonesia: A Narrative Review

Anna Wahyuni Widayanti, James A. Green, Susan Heydon, Pauline Norris
Pages: 6 - 15
This review aims to locate existing studies on health-seeking behavior of people in Indonesia, identify gaps, and highlight important findings. Articles were retrieved from Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete (via Ebsco), and ProQuest with a number of key words and various combinations....
Research Article

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Health Education on Menopause Symptoms and Knowledge and Attitude in Terms of Menopause

Tugce Koyuncu, Alaettin Unsal, Didem Arslantas
Pages: 8 - 12
This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of health education on menopausal symptoms, knowledge, and attitudes about menopause. To evaluate the efficacy of a training program, information about menopausal symptoms, knowledge, and attitude toward menopause was collected before and after...
Research Article

Gastrointestinal pathogen distribution in symptomatic children in Sydney, Australia

Stephanie Fletcher, Sebastian Van Hal, David Andresen, Mary-Louise McLaws, Damien Stark, John Harkness, John Ellis
Pages: 11 - 21
There is limited information on the causes of paediatric diarrhoea in Sydney. This cross-sectional study used clinical and microbiological data to describe the clinical features and pathogens associated with gastrointestinal illnesses for children presenting to two major public hospitals in Sydney with...
Research Article

Indonesian Hajj Cohorts and Mortality in Saudi Arabia from 2004 to 2011

Masdalina Pane, Fiona Yin Mei Kong, Tri Bayu Purnama, Kathryn Glass, Sholah Imari, Gina Samaan, Hitoshi Oshitani
Pages: 11 - 18
The Hajj is an annual pilgrimage that 1–2 million Muslims undertake in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which is the largest mass gathering event in the world, as the world’s most populous Muslim nation, Indonesia holds the largest visa quota for the Hajj. All Hajj pilgrims under the quota system are...
Research Article

HIV-infected presumptive tuberculosis patients without tuberculosis: How many are eligible for antiretroviral therapy in Karnataka, India?

Ajay M.V. Kumar, Anil Singarajipura, Balaji Naik, Deepak K. Guddemane, Yogesh Patel, Suresh Shastri, Sunil Kumar, Rajesh Deshmukh, B.B. Rewari, Anthony David Harries
Pages: 11 - 19
For certain subgroups within people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [active tuberculosis (TB), pregnant women, children <5 years old, and serodiscordant couples], the World Health Organization recommends antiretroviral therapy (ART) irrespective of CD4 count. Another subgroup which...
Research Article

Trends of reported human cases of brucellosis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2004–2012

Abdulaziz D. Aloufi, Ziad A. Memish, Abdullah M. Assiri, Scott J.N. McNabb
Pages: 11 - 18
Human brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease and is especially concerning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), where livestock importation is significant. We analyzed reported human brucellosis disease trends in KSA over time to help policymakers understand the magnitude of the disease and guide...
Research Article

Socioeconomic status and obesity in Cairo, Egypt: A heavy burden for all

Mona Mowafi, Zeinab Khadr, Ichiro Kawachi, S.V. Subramanian, Allan Hill, Gary G. Bennett
Pages: 13 - 21
Studies have generally shown a positive association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity in low-income countries, but few have tested this relationship in the Middle East where obesity prevalence is extraordinarily high and the nutrition profile more closely resembles developed world contexts....
Research Article

Lifestyle Habits in Relation to Overweight and Obesity among Saudi Women Attending Health Science Colleges

Manan A. Alhakbany, Hana A. Alzamil, Wajude A. Alabdullatif, Shahad N. Aldekhyyel, Munirah N. Alsuhaibani, Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa
Pages: 13 - 19
The study examined the associations between lifestyle habits and overweight/obesity among Saudi females attending health science colleges. A total of 454 female students were randomly recruited from five health science colleges at King Saud University, using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique....
Research Article

The fog of war: Why the environmental crusade for anadromous fish species in California could disarm the State’s local vector control districts in their war against mosquitoes

Stephen M. Siptroth, Richard P. Shanahan
Pages: 15 - 19
In California, local mosquito and vector control districts have successfully controlled mosquito and vector-borne diseases by improving drainage patterns and applying pesticides. The Bay-Delta Conservation Plan, which is a proposed habitat conservation plan for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay-Delta estuary,...