Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

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382 articles

Early Initiation of ARV Therapy Among TB–HIV Patients in Indonesia Prolongs Survival Rates!

Siti Maemun, Nina Mariana, Adria Rusli, Renti Mahkota, Tri Bayu Purnama
Background: The HIV epidemic remains a public health problem with rising tuberculosis (TB) numbers around the world. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (ART) is essential to increase the survival of patients with TB–HIV coinfection. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ARV treatment initiation...

Efficacy of DAAs in the Treatment of Chronic HCV: Real-World Data from the Private Health-Care Sector of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Almoutaz Hashim, Fadia Almahdi, Emad Aldin Albaba, Ohoud Barkia, Reem Alkasam, Asmaa Almahmoud, Ahmed Nabil, Ayman Alsulaimani, Mahmoud Mosli
Background and Aim: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered a global health challenge that requires urgent interventions for prevention and control. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for HCV-infected patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia...

The Epidemiology of HIV in Oman, 1984–2018: A Nationwide Study from the Middle East

Ali Elgalib, Samir Shah, Adil Al-Wahaibi, Zeyana Al-Habsi, Maha Al-Fouri, Richard Lau, Hanan Al-Kindi, Bader Al-Rawahi, Seif Al-Abri
We used population-based data on all diagnosed people living with Human Immunodeficiency (HIV) reported to the National AIDS Programme in 1984–2018 to describe the HIV epidemiology in Oman. A total of 3060 Omanis were diagnosed with HIV from 1984 to 2018. The proportions of new infections attributed...

Care-Related Quality of Life of Caregivers of Beta-Thalassemia Major Children: An Epidemiological Study in Eastern India

Bijit Biswas, Narendra Nath Naskar, Keya Basu, Aparajita Dasgupta, Rivu Basu, Bobby Paul
Caregivers are the persons who provide care at the time of distress or illness. They face many stress and strain to provide the best possible medical care for their children. There are very few studies that explored the care-related quality of life (CarerQoL) of the caregivers of thalassemic children...

Utility of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay for Diagnosis of Pediatric Tuberculosis Under Programmatic Conditions in India

Rakesh Yadav, Pankaj Vaidya, Joseph L Mathew, Sanjay Verma, Rajiv Khaneja, Priyanka Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar, Meenu Singh, Sunil Sethi
Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in children still remains a challenge in developing countries. We analyze the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of pediatric TB under programmatic conditions. We retrospectively analyzed the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay from February 2016 to March...

Top Ethical Issues Concerning Healthcare Providers Working in Saudi Arabia

Amar Mansour Almoallem, Mohammed Abdulaziz Almudayfir, Yassar H. Al-Jahdail, Anwar E. Ahmed, Adnan Al-Shaikh, Salim Baharoon, Abdullah AlHarbi, Hamdan Al-Jahdali
Background: Healthcare providers working in Saudi Arabia come from various nationalities, cultures, and training backgrounds. This study aimed to assess the perceptions of healthcare providers working in Riyadh hospitals about ethical dilemmas and solutions. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study...

Predictors of Quality of Life in Transfusion-dependent Thalassemia Patients Based on the PRECEDE Model: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

Mina Maheri, Alireza Rohban, Roya Sadeghi, Hamid Joveini
This study aimed to determine the predictors of Quality of Life (QoL) in Transfusion-Dependent Thalassemia (TDT) patients based on PRECEDE (Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation) model. This cross-sectional analytical study was performed on 389 TDT...

A Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing the Onset of Hookah Smoking among Iranian Men with Turkmen Ethnicity

Shirin Shahbazi Sighaldeh, Fatemeh Zarghami, Abdurrahman Charkazi, Reza Negarandeh
Introduction: Hookah smoking has grown considerably among Iranian Turkmen in the past two decades. The reasons for this increase in the consumption of hookah are unclear. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of determining the factors related to the start of hookah smoking in men with Turkmen...

Evaluation of Noninvasive Respiratory Volume Monitoring in the PACU of a Low Resource Kenyan Hospital

Kendall J. Burdick, Muchai Stephen Thuo, Xiaoke Sarah Feng, Matthew S. Shotwell, Joseph J. Schlesinger
This research aims to evaluate the use of the noninvasive respiratory volume monitor (RVM) compared to the standard of care (SOC) in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) of Kijabe Hospital, Kenya. The RVM provides real-time measurements for quantitative monitoring of non-intubated patients. Our evaluation...

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Insomnia Among a Representative Sample of the Lebanese Population: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

Gloria Al Karaki, Souheil Hallit, Diana Malaeb, Nelly Kheir, Hala Sacre, Pascale Salameh, Rabih Hallit
The objectives of the study were to identify the prevalence of insomnia among a representative sample of the Lebanese population and to assess potential factors associated with insomnia among this group. A cross-sectional study was done in the Lebanese population from August 2017 to April 2018 enrolling...

Does Being Transported by Emergency Medical Services Improve Compliance with the Surviving Sepsis Bundle and Mortality Rate? A Retrospective Cohort Study

Faisal Alhusain, Hanin Alsuwailem, Alanoud Aldrees, Ahad Bugis, Sarah Alzuhairi, Sami Alsulami, Yaseen Arabi, Nawfal Aljerian
Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between patients with severe sepsis or septic shock being transported to the Emergency Department (ED) by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and the compliance with the 3-h sepsis resuscitation bundle [Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC)], and to...

Improved Access to Diagnostics for Rhodesian Sleeping Sickness around a Conservation Area in Malawi Results in Earlier Detection of Cases and Reduced Mortality

Marshal Lemerani, Fredrick Jumah, Paul Bessell, Sylvain Biéler, Joseph Mathu Ndung’u
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (rHAT) is a zoonotic disease transmitted by tsetse flies from wild and domestic animals. It presents as an acute disease and advances rapidly into a neurological form that can only be treated with melarsoprol, which is associated with a high...

The Rise of Noncommunicable Diseases in Kenya: An Examination of the Time Trends and Contribution of the Changes in Diet and Physical Inactivity

Edward Michieka Onyango, Benjamin Moranga Onyango
Pages: 1 - 7
This study examined correlations of historical changes in diet and physical inactivity with the rise of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in Kenya. Historical data on diet, wage jobs by industry, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), and morbidity due to NCDs were extracted from Kenya Statistical...

Can pervasive sensing address current challenges in global healthcare?

Louis Atallah, Benny Lo, Guang-Zhong Yang
Pages: 1 - 13
Important challenges facing global healthcare include the increase in the number of people affected by escalating healthcare costs, chronic and infectious diseases, the need for better and more affordable elderly care and expanding urbanisation combined with air and water pollution. Recent advances in...

Availability of results from clinical research: Failing policy efforts

Tatyana A. Shamliyan, Robert L. Kane
Pages: 1 - 12
Objectives: Trial registration has a great potential to increase research transparency and public access to research results. This study examined the availability of results either in journal publications or in the trial registry from all studies registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. Methods: All 137,612...

COVID-19 in the Shadows of MERS-CoV in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Mazin Barry, Maha Al Amri, Ziad A. Memish
Pages: 1 - 3
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has plagued the Middle East since it was first reported in 2012. Recently, at the end of December 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases were reported from Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, linked to a wet seafood market with a new coronavirus identified...

Demographics of Pediatric Orbital Lesions: A Tertiary Eye Center Experience in Saudi Arabia

Hind Manaa Alkatan, Faisal Al Marek, Sahar Elkhamary
Pages: 3 - 10
Orbital lesions vary in their classification, incidence, and presentation depending on the age and geographic distribution. Such lesions in the pediatric age group have been studied extensively because of the possibility of faster progression of orbital involvement and the higher risk of morbidity in...

Assessing the overuse of antibiotics in children with URTIs in Saudi Arabia: Development of the parental perception on antibiotics scale (PAPA scale)

Arwa Alumran, Xiang-Yu Hou, Cameron Hurst
Pages: 3 - 10
Background: Antibiotic overuse is influenced by several factors that can only be measured using a valid and reliable psychosocial measurement instrument. This study aims to establish translation and early stage validation of an instrument recently developed by this research team to measure factors influencing...

Counselling services in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in Delhi, India: An assessment through a modified version of UNICEF-PPTCT tool

Arvind Kumar, Bir Singh, Yadlapalli S. Kusuma
Pages: 3 - 13
The study aims to assess the counselling services provided to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) under the Indian programme of prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV (PPTCT). Five hospitals in Delhi providing PMTCT services were randomly selected. A total of 201 post-test...

“Nurses and Midwives: Clean Care Is in Your Hands”: The May 5, 2020, World Health Organization SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands Campaign☆

Alexandra Peters, Nasim Lotfinejad, Chloé Guitart, Alice Simniceanu, Maria Clara Padoveze, Tcheun Borzykowski, Benedetta Allegranzi, Didier Pittet
Pages: 4 - 5

Climate change impacts on water salinity and health

Paolo Vineis, Queenie Chan, Aneire Khan
Pages: 5 - 10
It is estimated that 884 million people do not have access to clean drinking water in the world. Increasing salinity of natural drinking water sources has been reported as one of the many problems that affect low-income countries, but one which has not been fully explored. This problem is exacerbated...

Are we facing a noncommunicable disease pandemic?

Luke Allen
Pages: 5 - 9
The global boom in premature mortality and morbidity from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) shares many similarities with pandemics of infectious diseases, yet public health professionals have resisted the adoption of this label. It is increasingly apparent that NCDs are actually communicable conditions,...

Health-Seeking Behavior of People in Indonesia: A Narrative Review

Anna Wahyuni Widayanti, James A. Green, Susan Heydon, Pauline Norris
Pages: 6 - 15
This review aims to locate existing studies on health-seeking behavior of people in Indonesia, identify gaps, and highlight important findings. Articles were retrieved from Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete (via Ebsco), and ProQuest with a number of key words and various combinations....

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Health Education on Menopause Symptoms and Knowledge and Attitude in Terms of Menopause

Tugce Koyuncu, Alaettin Unsal, Didem Arslantas
Pages: 8 - 12
This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of health education on menopausal symptoms, knowledge, and attitudes about menopause. To evaluate the efficacy of a training program, information about menopausal symptoms, knowledge, and attitude toward menopause was collected before and after...

HIV-infected presumptive tuberculosis patients without tuberculosis: How many are eligible for antiretroviral therapy in Karnataka, India?

Ajay M.V. Kumar, Anil Singarajipura, Balaji Naik, Deepak K. Guddemane, Yogesh Patel, Suresh Shastri, Sunil Kumar, Rajesh Deshmukh, B.B. Rewari, Anthony David Harries
Pages: 11 - 19
For certain subgroups within people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [active tuberculosis (TB), pregnant women, children <5 years old, and serodiscordant couples], the World Health Organization recommends antiretroviral therapy (ART) irrespective of CD4 count. Another subgroup which...

Gastrointestinal pathogen distribution in symptomatic children in Sydney, Australia

Stephanie Fletcher, Sebastian Van Hal, David Andresen, Mary-Louise McLaws, Damien Stark, John Harkness, John Ellis
Pages: 11 - 21
There is limited information on the causes of paediatric diarrhoea in Sydney. This cross-sectional study used clinical and microbiological data to describe the clinical features and pathogens associated with gastrointestinal illnesses for children presenting to two major public hospitals in Sydney with...

Indonesian Hajj Cohorts and Mortality in Saudi Arabia from 2004 to 2011

Masdalina Pane, Fiona Yin Mei Kong, Tri Bayu Purnama, Kathryn Glass, Sholah Imari, Gina Samaan, Hitoshi Oshitani
Pages: 11 - 18
The Hajj is an annual pilgrimage that 1–2 million Muslims undertake in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which is the largest mass gathering event in the world, as the world’s most populous Muslim nation, Indonesia holds the largest visa quota for the Hajj. All Hajj pilgrims under the quota system are...

Trends of reported human cases of brucellosis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2004–2012

Abdulaziz D. Aloufi, Ziad A. Memish, Abdullah M. Assiri, Scott J.N. McNabb
Pages: 11 - 18
Human brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease and is especially concerning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), where livestock importation is significant. We analyzed reported human brucellosis disease trends in KSA over time to help policymakers understand the magnitude of the disease and guide...

Socioeconomic status and obesity in Cairo, Egypt: A heavy burden for all

Mona Mowafi, Zeinab Khadr, Ichiro Kawachi, S.V. Subramanian, Allan Hill, Gary G. Bennett
Pages: 13 - 21
Studies have generally shown a positive association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity in low-income countries, but few have tested this relationship in the Middle East where obesity prevalence is extraordinarily high and the nutrition profile more closely resembles developed world contexts....

Lifestyle Habits in Relation to Overweight and Obesity among Saudi Women Attending Health Science Colleges

Manan A. Alhakbany, Hana A. Alzamil, Wajude A. Alabdullatif, Shahad N. Aldekhyyel, Munirah N. Alsuhaibani, Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa
Pages: 13 - 19
The study examined the associations between lifestyle habits and overweight/obesity among Saudi females attending health science colleges. A total of 454 female students were randomly recruited from five health science colleges at King Saud University, using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique....

The fog of war: Why the environmental crusade for anadromous fish species in California could disarm the State’s local vector control districts in their war against mosquitoes

Stephen M. Siptroth, Richard P. Shanahan
Pages: 15 - 19
In California, local mosquito and vector control districts have successfully controlled mosquito and vector-borne diseases by improving drainage patterns and applying pesticides. The Bay-Delta Conservation Plan, which is a proposed habitat conservation plan for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay-Delta estuary,...

The social context of tobacco products use among adolescents in Lebanon (MedSPAD-Lebanon)

Naim Bejjani, Charbel El Bcheraoui, Salim M. Adib
Pages: 15 - 22
Background: Current data from the Middle East suggest a rapid increase in the incidence of smoking water-pipes (narguileh in Lebanon) in parallel with cigarettes. The social context in which these two behaviors are initiated and associated has not been studied. Methods: Data from a standardized questionnaire...

The Malay version of the brief questionnaire on smoking urge: Translation and psychometric properties of the questionnaire

Ali Qais Blebil, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Juman Abdulelah Dujaili, Alfian Mohamed Zin
Pages: 15 - 22
This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Malay translated version of the brief questionnaire of smoking urges (QSU-Brief). The translation procedure was done following the standard guidelines. The reliability and validity of the Malaysian version scale were evaluated based on the data...

Double Burden of Malnutrition in the Asia-Pacific Region—A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Wen Peng, Yuhan Mu, Yang Hu, Bin Li, Jayanthi Raman, Zhixian Sui
Pages: 16 - 27
Background: Double Burden of Malnutrition (DBM)—the coexistence of undernutrition along with overnutrition—is a significant public health issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The scope of the DBM in this region is largely unknown. This review aims to determine the prevalence of under- and overnutrition...

Malnutrition and Childhood Illness among 1–5-year-old Children in an Urban Slum in Faridabad: A Cross-Sectional Study

Pooja Goyal, Shveta Lukhmana, Shivam Dixit, Abhishek Singh
Pages: 19 - 22
A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 children aged 1–5 years residing in an urban slum to study the extent of malnutrition and its association with common childhood illness(es). The participants were selected using convenient sampling (nonprobability), and the appropriate...

Evaluation of home respiratory therapy delivered to patients in the Ministry of Health’s Home Medical Program (HMP) and administered through the Madinah HMP Center, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

Rana A. Alhelali, Scott J.N. McNabb, Ziad A. Memish
Pages: 19 - 27
This was an evaluation of home respiratory therapy (HRT) services administered through the Madinah Home Medical Program (MHMP) Center of the Ministry of Health (MoH), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Using a retrospective design and descriptive analyses, we analyzed 83 patient records for the clinical...

Vitamin A Supplementation for Prevention and Treatment of Malaria during Pregnancy and Childhood: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Mohammad Yawar Yakoob, Murad Qadir, Omm-e- Hany
Pages: 20 - 28
Animal studies have shown that vitamin A plays a role in immunity and protection against infectious diseases. Its role reducing incidence of diarrhea and measles, and childhood mortality is known, but its role in relation to malaria is unclear. Thus, a comprehensive, systematic literature search was...

Redefining syndromic surveillance

Rebecca Katz, Larissa May, Julia Baker, Elisa Test
Pages: 21 - 31
With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned...

Democracy predicts sport and recreation membership: Insights from 52 countries

Shea M. Balish
Pages: 21 - 28
Although evidence suggests sport and recreation are powerful contributors to worldwide public health, sizable gender differences persist. It is unknown whether country characteristics moderate gender differences across countries. The primary purpose of this study was to examine if countries’ levels of...