Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

Volume 11, Issue 3, September 2021, Pages 289 - 295

Factors Associated with the Incidence and Mortality of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) after 126-million Cases: A Meta-analysis

Authors
Jeerath Phannajit1, 2, , ORCID, Kullaya Takkavatakarn1, , Pisut Katavetin1, Thanin Asawavichienjinda2, ORCID, Kriang Tungsanga1, ORCID, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa1, Somchai Eiam-Ong1, Paweena Susantitaphong1, 3, *
1Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, 1873 RAMA IV, Bangkok, Thailand
2Division Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
3Research Unit for Metabolic Bone Disease in CKD Patients, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

Both JP and KuT contribute equally as first co-author in this work.

*Corresponding author. Email: pesancerinus@hotmail.com
Corresponding Author
Paweena Susantitaphong
Received 17 November 2020, Accepted 21 May 2021, Available Online 14 June 2021.
DOI
https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.210527.001How to use a DOI?
Keywords
Coronavirus disease-19; pandemics; epidemiology; mortality; incidence; health system
Abstract

Objectives: This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the current global incidence and mortality of COVID-19 and also explored the associated factors including geographic variations, transmission scenarios, country economic status, and healthcare performance.

Methods: The search was conducted in online databases based on reports from national authorities by March 28, 2021. Random-effects model meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were used to generate summary estimates and explored sources of heterogeneity.

Results: The cumulative number of confirmed COVID-19 cases was 125,704,789 reported by 216 countries. The pooled Daily Cumulative Index (DCI) was 1423.87 cases/day which was highest in South America (2759.15 cases/day) followed by North America (2252.49 cases/day), Europe (1858.44 cases/day), Asia (1484.84 cases/day), Africa (193.09 cases/day), and Australia/Oceania (18.55 cases/day). The overall pooled mortality rate of COVID-19 was 1.53%. Higher income countries and countries with community transmission had higher DCI. By meta-regression, country total health expenditure per capita, percentage of universal health coverage, and total number of tests were associated with higher DCI. On the contrary, country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita were negatively correlated with mortality rate.

Conclusion: To date, 216 countries around the world are affected by COVID-19. Higher income, GDP, and countries’ investments on heath are associated with higher DCI while higher GDP correlates with lower mortality. Community transmission route have more impact on the incidence and mortality of COVID-19.

Copyright
© 2021 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press International B.V.
Open Access
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

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Journal
Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Volume-Issue
11 - 3
Pages
289 - 295
Publication Date
2021/06/14
ISSN (Online)
2210-6014
ISSN (Print)
2210-6006
DOI
https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.210527.001How to use a DOI?
Copyright
© 2021 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press International B.V.
Open Access
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

Cite this article

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Jeerath Phannajit
AU  - Kullaya Takkavatakarn
AU  - Pisut Katavetin
AU  - Thanin Asawavichienjinda
AU  - Kriang Tungsanga
AU  - Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa
AU  - Somchai Eiam-Ong
AU  - Paweena Susantitaphong
PY  - 2021
DA  - 2021/06/14
TI  - Factors Associated with the Incidence and Mortality of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) after 126-million Cases: A Meta-analysis
JO  - Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
SP  - 289
EP  - 295
VL  - 11
IS  - 3
SN  - 2210-6014
UR  - https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.210527.001
DO  - https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.210527.001
ID  - Phannajit2021
ER  -