Two-Level Games Theory in Panama–Taiwan Diplomatic Relations
- https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.210531.018How to use a DOI?
- Panama, Taiwan, China, United States, Foreign Policy, two-level games
On June 13, 2017, Taiwan faced shocking news. Panama announced abandoning diplomatic ties with Taiwan. On the same day, Panama also announced that it had officially established diplomatic relations with China. Taiwan responded with their disappointment in Panama for ending their long-time good relations. This raises questions about why Panama unilaterally broke diplomatic relations with Taiwan and turned to China, even though the two countries had had good relations for more than 100 years. This study describes the variables associated with the theory of two-level games by Robert Putnam. From the author’s analysis, domestic and international level variables have the same size effect in achieving a win-set, which means termination of diplomatic relations. China succeeded in winning negotiations at the international level with strategic thinking that could benefit Panama in many aspects. Likewise, domestically, economic and historical factors were a burdensome reason for this foreign policy consideration.
- © 2021, the Authors. Published by Atlantis Press.
- Open Access
- This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).
Cite this article
TY - CONF AU - Hafiyer Al Halim THA PY - 2021 DA - 2021/05/31 TI - Two-Level Games Theory in Panama–Taiwan Diplomatic Relations BT - Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Research in Social Sciences and Humanities Universitas Indonesia Conference (APRISH 2019) PB - Atlantis Press SP - 147 EP - 153 SN - 2352-5398 UR - https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.210531.018 DO - https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.210531.018 ID - THA2021 ER -