Actor and Patient in Javanese and Indonesian Imperative Clauses
- 10.2991/assehr.k.211226.022How to use a DOI?
- imperative; Javanese; Indonesian; voice system
This paper discusses imperative clauses in Javanese and Indonesian, two genetically related languages in the Western Austronesian subfamily of the Austronesian languages family. The discussion focuses on the type of imperative clauses with two arguments, an actor and a patient, or imperative clauses with transitive verbs. In this paper, I show that Javanese has more variants of imperative clauses than Indonesian as indicated by the affixation of the verbs. Four transitive imperative verbs are found in Javanese imperative clauses: (a) verbs without affixes, (b) verbs with the prefix di-, (c) verbs with the affix N-a, and (d) verbs with the suffix -(n)en. In Indonesian, there are only two types of verbs found in imperative clauses with actor and patient arguments: (a) verbs without affixes and (b) verbs with prefix di-. I argue that the existence of imperative clauses with verbs (a) and (b) in both Javanese and Indonesian indicates that the two languages are a type of two-voice language: active dan passive voices. Meanwhile, the existence of imperative clauses with verbs (c) and (d) in Javanese indicates that this language is also a type of multiple voice language which is the type of the ancestor language, the proto-Austronesian language. It seems that Javanese is in the process of changing from a multiple voice language type to a two-voice language type.
- © 2021 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press SARL.
- Open Access
- This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license.
Cite this article
TY - CONF AU - Suhandano PY - 2021 DA - 2021/12/27 TI - Actor and Patient in Javanese and Indonesian Imperative Clauses BT - Proceedings of the International Congress of Indonesian Linguistics Society (KIMLI 2021) PB - Atlantis Press SP - 99 EP - 106 SN - 2352-5398 UR - https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.211226.022 DO - 10.2991/assehr.k.211226.022 ID - 2021 ER -