Proceedings of the Soedirman International Conference on Mathematics and Applied Sciences (SICOMAS 2021)

Application of the Conjugate-Gradient Method for Analysing the Optimum Thrust Force for the Pico-Hydropower

Authors
Sunardi Sunardi1, Jamrud Aminuddin1, *, Wuryatmo Akhmad Sidik2, Akmal Ferdiyan1, Urip Nurwijayanto Prabowo1, Zulkaida Akbar3
1Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. dr. Suparno 61 Grendeng Purwokerto, 53122, Indonesia.
2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. dr. Suparno 61 Grendeng Purwokerto, 53122, Indonesia.
3Department of Physics, Solid Polarized Target Group, Virginia University, 382 McCormick Rd, Charlottesville, VA, 22904, USA.
*Corresponding author. Email: jamrud.aminuddin@unsoed.ac.id
Corresponding Author
Jamrud Aminuddin
Available Online 25 May 2022.
DOI
https://doi.org/10.2991/apr.k.220503.024How to use a DOI?
Keywords
Conjugate-gradient; Forebay; Hydropower; Nozzle; Penstock
Abstract

A water thrust from the nozzle is the main factor for the optimizing of the pico-hydropower system. The previous study indicated that the optimal water trust resulting from the balance between the forebay tank and penstock pipe. The study of the balances has been conducted by governing of Bernoulli equation that is related to the discharge and thrust of water. The Bernoulli equation is solved using numerical analysis namely conjugate gradient methods as an algorithm for optimizing the target function by determining the values of independent variables. The main target in the numerical calculation is to obtain the maximum values of water thrust from the nozzle for rotating the turbine. The independent variables considered in this computational process are the diameters of both forebay tank and penstock pipe, in conjunction with both elevations. The values obtained in this numerical analysis indicated that the dimension of both the forebay tank and penstock pipe has a significant effect in enhancing the water thrust from the nozzle. Besides, the elevations of both are indispensable in increasing the water thrust for rotating the turbine of the pico-hydropower system. Considering these results and literature study, a simple scheme of forebay tank and penstock pipe with nozzle is proposed, completed by size and dimension. The diameter and height of the forebay tank are about 2.5 and 3.0 m, respectively. An ideal diameter for the penstock pipe is 0.10 m while the nozzle is 0.05 m. The system is possible to produce a driving force approximately 11-12 N. The theoretical estimation with 50% of loss power indicates that the system is possible to generate 3.0-6.0 kW. The power may bigger than this estimation if the loss of power lower than 50% and an efficient system of more than 70%.

Copyright
© 2022 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press International B.V.
Open Access
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license.

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Volume Title
Proceedings of the Soedirman International Conference on Mathematics and Applied Sciences (SICOMAS 2021)
Series
Advances in Physics Research
Publication Date
25 May 2022
ISBN
978-94-6239-579-4
ISSN
2352-541X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.2991/apr.k.220503.024How to use a DOI?
Copyright
© 2022 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press International B.V.
Open Access
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license.

Cite this article

TY  - CONF
AU  - Sunardi Sunardi
AU  - Jamrud Aminuddin
AU  - Wuryatmo Akhmad Sidik
AU  - Akmal Ferdiyan
AU  - Urip Nurwijayanto Prabowo
AU  - Zulkaida Akbar
PY  - 2022
DA  - 2022/05/25
TI  - Application of the Conjugate-Gradient Method for Analysing the Optimum Thrust Force for the Pico-Hydropower
BT  - Proceedings of the Soedirman International Conference on Mathematics and Applied Sciences (SICOMAS 2021)
PB  - Atlantis Press
SP  - 125
EP  - 132
SN  - 2352-541X
UR  - https://doi.org/10.2991/apr.k.220503.024
DO  - https://doi.org/10.2991/apr.k.220503.024
ID  - Sunardi2022
ER  -