HIV Prevalence, Risk Factors for Infection, and Uptake of Prevention, Testing, and Treatment among Female Sex Workers in Namibia
- https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.200603.001How to use a DOI?
- Sex workers, HIV prevalence, key populations, respondent-driven sampling, biobehavioral surveillance, Namibia
Background: In most settings, Female Sex Workers (FSW) bear a disproportionate burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease worldwide. Representative data to inform the development of behavioral and biomedical interventions for FSW in Namibia have not been published.
Objectives: Our objectives were to measure HIV prevalence, identify risk factors for infection, and describe uptake of prevention, testing, and treatment among FSW in Namibia.
Methods: We conducted cross-sectional surveys using Respondent-driven Sampling (RDS) in the Namibian cities of Katima Mulilo, Oshikango, Swakopmund/Walvis Bay, and Windhoek. Participating FSW completed behavioral questionnaires and rapid HIV testing.
Results: City-specific ranges of key indicators were: HIV prevalence (31.0–52.3%), reached by prevention programs in the past 12 months (46.9–73.6%), condom use at last sex with commercial (82.1–91.1%) and non-commercial (87.0–94.2%) partners, and tested for HIV within past 12 months or already aware of HIV-positive serostatus (56.9–82.1%). Factors associated with HIV infection varied by site and included: older age, having multiple commercial or non-commercial sex partners, unemployment, being currently out of school, and lower education level. Among HIV-positive FSW, 57.1% were aware of their HIV-positive serostatus and 33.7% were on antiretroviral treatment.
Discussion: Our results indicate extremely high HIV prevalence and low levels of case identification and treatment among FSW in Namibia. Our results, which are the first representative community-based estimates among FSW in Namibia, can inform the scale-up of interventions to reduce the risk for HIV acquisition and onward transmission, including treatment as prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis.
- © 2020 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press International B.V.
- Open Access
- This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).
Cite this article
TY - JOUR AU - Anna Jonas AU - Sadhna V. Patel AU - Frieda Katuta AU - Andrew D. Maher AU - Karen M. Banda AU - Krysta Gerndt AU - Ismelda Pietersen AU - Neia Menezes de Prata AU - Nicholus Mutenda AU - Tuli Nakanyala AU - Esme Kisting AU - Brown Kawana AU - Ann-Marie Nietschke AU - Dimitri Prybylski AU - Willi McFarland AU - David W. Lowrance PY - 2020 DA - 2020/06 TI - HIV Prevalence, Risk Factors for Infection, and Uptake of Prevention, Testing, and Treatment among Female Sex Workers in Namibia JO - Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health SP - 351 EP - 358 VL - 10 IS - 4 SN - 2210-6014 UR - https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.200603.001 DO - https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.200603.001 ID - Jonas2020 ER -