Proceedings of the conference on Recent Advances in Rock Engineering (RARE 2016)

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97 articles

Overview of seismic monitoring and assessment of seismic hazard based on a decade of seismic events

Jennifer Praveena Das, V.R. Balasubramaniam, Kantepudi Goverdhan, G.P. Ganapathy
During mining activity, the natural equilibrium of the rock mass gets altered resulting in increase in stress causing sudden, violent failure of rock mass. The stress increases with increase in the depth of mining. The dynamic stress changes caused due to release of strain energy from within the rock...

Stability analysis and design of slope reinforcement techniques for a Himalayan landslide

Pandit Koushik, Sarkar Shantanu, Samanta Manojit, Sharma Mahesh
In the present study, slope stability analysis has been carried out for Pakhi landslide, atPipalkoti, Uttarakhand Himalaya, India. The site is situated alongside Chamoli-Badrinath National Highway (NH-58) in the Higher Himalayas. This route has immense importance due to its functional service for both...

A study on the need of assessment of settlement properties of coal mine waste dumps

R.M. Bishwal, Sen Phalguni, M. Jawed
Mining of coal deposits in excess of half a billion tons has resulted in a massive volume of coarse overburden (OB) material that is posing challenges in sustainable practice of waste handling and management. Ever increasing land demand for industrial or domestic purposes, mostly in urban or densely...

Geotechnical investigations for locating an underground powerhouse in calcareous rocks, Himachal Pradesh, India

Sayeed Imran, Khanna Rahul
The case pertains to a hydroelectric project (520MW) located in Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh. During the feasibility stage, surface powerhouse was proposed with an option of an underground alternative as well. In the detailed project report stage, when extensive investigations were undertaken for...

Advanced seismic investigations during construction of hydro tunnels

Dickmann Thomas, J Hecht Mendez, Choudary Kripal, Rahbar Ataollah
In order to maintain the economic and safety demand in underground projects for hydropower there is a vital necessity of advance geological prediction by using the seismic reflection prediction technique. Tunnelling in many projects suffered due to uncertain or even unknown geological problems such as...

Practical experiences of instrumentation and monitoring for depillaring

Kumar Ashok, Singh Arun Kumar, Ram Sahendra, Singh Amit Kumar, Rajendra Singh
The challenging nature of strata dynamics in and around goaf edge of a depillaring operation warrants continuous vigilance over the dynamics for a safe and efficient working. Depending upon the nature of the working and surrounding rock mass, a variety of geo-technical instruments are, generally, deployed...

Numerical modelling based rock load height estimation at the goaf edge in a mechanised depillaring panel

Ram Sahendra, Kumar Dheeraj, Kumar Rakesh, Kumar Ashok, Rajendra Singh
Presence of different openings along the extraction line (goaf edge) in a mechanised depillaring (MD) panel provides an easy path for the goaf to encroach the working area during caving. A number of continuous miner based MD operations are adopted in Indian coalfields in last thirteen years, where roof...

Classification and selection methodology for temporary support systems for underground structures

Kumar Manoj, Prasad Jitendra, A.K. Naithani
In this paper a new methodology for evaluation and classification of support system that can be applied to rock tunneling is discussed. It is of great importance to consider long-term stability of rock mass around the openings of underground structure, during design, construction and operation. Varying...

3D modeling of the fracture zones to decipher foundation level at Barethi Super Thermal Power Project, Madhya Pradesh, India

Chavhan Rashtrapal H, Sakhare Vishal V
The proposed 6x 660 MW Super Thermal Power Project is located near village Sandni and Barethi in Rajnagar Tehsil of Chhatarpur district, Madhya Pradesh. The terrain belongs to Bundelkhand Granite Massif (BGM) comprising a variety of medium to coarse grained granites. The Project site is mainly covered...

Stability of pillar between two caverns with dyke intrusion - A case study

P Nareen, M. Mahalakshmi, S. Shasank, K John, B. Abhishek
This paper presents numerical analyses for the stability of a pillar between two caverns in an underground oil storage project. The geological condition of this pillar reveals two major lineaments (intrusive bodies) intersecting each other between two caverns, which results in dislocation of dykes and...

Application of nanotechnology for underground roof bolting

Ramayya M S Venkata
Rock re-inforcement in Underground Coal mining is generally being done by roof bolting. Roof bolting is a pre-requisite and important activity for safety and high percentage of productive extraction of the Coal from Underground Coal mining. Nanotechnology and Nanoscience is the latest development in...

Innovative rock support under flowing water conditions in underground caverns

Pal Saikat, G. Kannan, Rath Ranjit, Nanda Atul
Underground construction of tunnels and caverns is an ever challenging project by virtue of the likelihood of encountering uncertain ground conditions. This is true despite all advancement in the field of prediction tools, equipment and instrumentation. One major factor leading to such uncertainties...

Analysis of tunnel considering Modified Mohr-Coulomb criteria

S. Rukhaiyar, N.K. Samadhiya
Analysis of tunnels and underground excavations requires a realistic prediction of strength and deformation characteristics of rockmass. The strength characteristics of rockmass must be determined by laboratory testing such as triaxial test but generally, classification approach is used to predict the...

Subsidence management and 3-D analysis at Ukwa underground manganese mine of MOIL Limited

G.G. Manekar, D. Shome, M.P. Chaudhari
Subsidence is a universal process that occurs in response to the voids created by extracting solids or liquids from beneath the Earth surface. The void created by the underground extraction causes significant changes in the magnitude and orientation of the insitu stress field and results in deformations...

Investigations on the attenuation characteristics of blast-induced ground vibrations for developing controlled blast design

V.M.S.R. Murthy, Bhagade Nachiket V, R.K. Das
Drilling and blasting is still the most prolific way to extract minerals and associated waste from the earth, more so in case of hard rocks with uniaxial compressive strength greater than 50 MPa. Considering the growing demand for these minerals reducing ground vibrations, air vibrations, fly rocks,...

Influence of topography on in situ stress parameter at the proposed powerhouse sites of Rupaligad Re-regulating Project, Nepal

D.S. Subrahmanyam, G. Shyam, K. Vamshidhar, S. Vikram
In-situ stress parameters of the rock mass are one of the vital inputs for the design of any large underground openings. In general, the in-situ stress magnitude and orientation are influenced by topography, and major geological structures like folds, faults and intrusions. These structures bring about...

Optimum blasting with precision delays and true bottom hole initiation:through e-DET ft at Jayant Project of NCL

Pandey Gunadhar, P. Ranjan, P.K. Sinha, C.P. Singh
Mining companies the world over are seriously looking at the 'total cost concept' having fully realized the benefits of good fragmentation and muckpile looseness achieved in the primary blasts itself. Good blast planning and accurate monitoring of the various operations holds the key to reaping and realizing...

Microseismics for cavern stability evaluation of a powerhouse structure after excavation

Kumar Vikalp, N. Gopalakrishnan, Cherukuri Sivakumar
The powerhouse of Tapovan Vishnugad Hydropower project (TVHPP) of NTPC is located in the tail of the Great Himalaya range in the Chamoli district, Uttrakhand and is located at +300m depth having adverse geological conditions. The project area is situated near the northern side of MCT around 2.0 Km and...

Three dimensional simulation of tunnel excavation using 2-D finite element software

Mehra Parikshit
This paper highlights a simple procedure to simulate stresses in a Tunnel when the excavation is being progressed. The paper is based on use of PHASE2 software which is a simple 2D software and needs no special training. This remains to be an important aspect for predicting displacement while using NATM...

Advances in rock mechanics and future trends

B.B. Dhar
Rock mechanics is an engineering discipline which is as old as 1770s. Coulomb of Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria fame carried out tests on rocks and presented the results in a paper to the French Academy. After about 150 years, Griffith proposed his theory of brittle material failure in 1921. At about...

Future of excavations for nuclear power projects

J.K. Jain
The beauty of science & technology is that as in a while there comes an invention that calmly replaces on existing paradigm and brings about profound changes in the every sphere of life including day-by-day innovations during implementation of engineering projects with continuous improvements toward...

Numerical simulation of roof bolt system during depillaring operations in bord and pillar panel

Hasim Rizwan, Jaiswal Ashok, B.K. Shrivastva, Jena Satyabdi
Roof bolting technology is widely used for support design in an underground coal mine. This paper focused on the numerical simulation considered the behaviour of roof and rock – grout – bolt interaction.Simulation of three dimensional model of depillaring panel with roof bolt support is difficult to...

Shear behavior of planar unfilled rock discontinuities with reference to surface morphology under constant normal load

Singh Hemant Kumar, Basu Arindam
Stability of rock masses at shallow depth is often controlled by shear behavior of discontinuities. This is an important issue in an engineering environment as well as from societal point of view. With regard to shear behavior assessment through laboratory investigation, direct shear test under constant...

Electronic detonators ? A tool for mitigating mining costs & risks

P.V.S. Sarma, A.M. Kazmi, A.D. Sao
Mining is a hazardous activity and capital intensive in nature too.  The cost of stoppage of mines, for any reason, for few hours is enormous. The mines need to minimise the stoppage times to improve productivity and to reduce costs. Mining companies should have to go for large size blasts to achieve...

Successful excavation of Surge Shaft in weak rock mass: A case study of 240MW URI-II HE Project, NHPC, J&K

Kumar BNS Naveen, Sahoo Radhendra Narayan
Surge shaft serves to absorb the hammering effect of water from pressure tunnel generated due to the sudden stoppage of turbines, by accommodating surges/mass oscillations during load rejection/acceptance until the conduit velocity attains a steady state in water conductor system of a hydel Project....

Design of embankment for safe back filling in opencast mines – A case study

Behera Santosh Kumar, C.N. Ghosh, P.K. Mandal
Disposal of coal ash generated by thermal power plants is a challenge now days under rigid environmental norms. The conventional method of disposing in ash ponds leads to requirement of huge amount of valuable land and it have adverse effect on air, ground water and soil. Hence, the need of the hour...

Performance of primary tunnel support systems under seismic loads in weak rock masses

R.B. Jishnu, Ayothiraman Ramanathan, Shaz Ahmed, Patra Chayan, Salu Ghosh
With the decrease in the over ground utilizable space and increase in growth of metro structures, cut and cover structures are becoming rather impossible to conceptualize and construct. Hence they are slowly replaced by underground openings made by NATM methods. These tunnels could be using rock bolts...

Effect of fluid additives on rock drilling

Rohit Rawal, N.C. Karmakar, S.K. Sharma
Drilling is a very dominant operation in all rock cutting industries, namely, mining, petroleum, natural gas and civil engineering. The objective of this study is to understand the behaviour of rock drillability by mean of penetration rate of bit, with concentration of 10 ppm of carboxymethyl cellulose,...

Kinematic stability analysis of multi-faced rock slopes in the Himalayas

Singh Tarun, K.S. Rao
For the assessment of natural stability of rock slopes, Kinematic analysis technique is extensively used. This technique makes use of dominant discontinuity planes within slope mass to forecast the probability of sliding, wedging and falling. This probability is given in the context of the attitude of...

Causes, impact and control of overbreak in underground excavations

H.K. Verma, R.D. Dwivedi, Roy P. Pal, P.K. Singh
Drilling and blasting has been a preferred method of rock excavation world-wide. Blasting inevitably causes damage to the peripheral rock mass, which culminates in the form of overbreak and damaged zone. Damage or overbreak not only endangers the safety of structure and cost escalation but also delayed...

Tunnelling Hazard in the diversion tunnel of sengulam augmentation scheme, Idukki District, Kerala

K.R. Praveen, C.S. Vishnu, C. Thanavelu
A free flow diversion tunnel is designed as a part of Sengulam Augmentation Scheme envisaged to increase the storage in an already existing reservoir at Sengulam, in turn power generation by transferring water available at Kallar River Basin. The tunnel is driven through gneissic bedrock with granite,...

Seismic load considerations in the design of underground structures for hydropower projects in the Himalayan region

T.K. Sivarajan
Generally, during earthquake events, underground structures have experienced a lower rate of damage than surface structures. Nevertheless,some underground structures registered significant damages in large earthquakes (the 1995 Kobe, Japan, the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, the 1999 Turkey, the 2008 China)....

Stability Analysis of shafts in the proposed deepening in Zawar Mines, HZL: A Case Study

Bhusan Rabi, Naik Sripad R, Sekar Vijay, K. Sudhakar, Aditya Mishra
S' factor is very important for operational existence of underground mines i.e. Stability, Stress, Shaft, Stoping and Safety. These factors depend on geology and in situconditions around the excavatedzone. Major geological discontinuities and uncertainties in geology, sometimes have a deleterious effect...

Borehole GPR investigations from underground for mapping the extension of old working at a Pb-Zn Mine in Rajasthan, India

S. Nelliat, Babu B Butchi, P.C. Jha, Y.V. Sivaram, Verma SN, Dutta S, Jha A
Conventional GPR reflection surveys in base metal sulphide mines are sometimes marred by scattering due to heterogeneity or presence of disseminated sulphide minerals. Surface scanning in such areas have its own limitations as the depth of investigation is adversely influenced by the highly lossy medium....

Development of predictive models for the specific energy in indentation of rocks

Kalyan Balla, Ch.S.N. Murthy, R.P. Choudhary
This paper presents an experimental study on the static indentation tests on six types of rocks namely marble, limestone, basalt, steel gray granite, moon white granite and black galaxy granite using commercial drill bits (indenters) of spherical button type of 35mm, 38mm, 45mm and 48mm diameter to determine...

Effect of shape of opening on the stability of caverns: an experimental analysis

N.R. Thote, Sohail Wajid, M.R. Saharan
Sustainable development requirements made it necessary that underground space shall be used with larger size openings. This is to ensure a greater transportation demand and for preserving environment quality. The need for underground space technology has increased significantly during the past few decades...

Stability of underground mine workings due to surface blasting

P.K. Singh
Blasting in the mining industry is being transformed, and can no longer be treated as an art or a practice purely dependent upon experiences of individuals. Examples of key drivers that have demanded consistent and more accurate blast results are initiatives to control pit-wall damage to help mine operators...

Engineering geology for weak rocks of Abu Hamour surface and ground water drainage tunnel Phase-1, Doha, Qatar

J.B. Stypulkowski, A.K. Pathak, F.G. Bernardeau
This paper discusses results of analysis from geotechnical database collected during field mapping of shafts in weak/soft rocks of Abu Hamour tunnel project area of South Doha, Qatar. Shafts are connected to the main tunnel by short tunnels – adits, excavated using sequential excavation method. Shaft...

Rib geomechanics: Its impacts in coal pillar extraction

Singh Satyendra K, H. Agrawal, A.P. Singh
In Bord & Pillar (B&P) depillaring, there are redistributions of mining-induced stresses on acontinual basis, primarily with apronounced effect on the natural supports - ribs and stooks. A rib need to be stable on temporary time-frame such that (a) it should provide adequate safety to men and machines...

Rock slope stabilisation – Case study of a weathered sandstone slope along the railway in Bavaria, Germany

Dutta Lopamudra, Singha Gourango
Due to the fact that the German Railroad reduced the maintenance work on the important railway line Nuremberg – Regensburg, section Deining - Batzhausen they had several cases with blocks laying at the tracks. Therefore they decided to stabilize the 70° steep weathering prone sandstone slope. As a protective...

Post-failure fatigue behaviour of intact sandstone from burst prone coal mine in Ostrava-Karvina Coalfield

M.N. Bagde
In the literature, mostly, pre-failure behaviour of the intact rock in static and rarely in cyclic loading is reported. In various earlier publications on the subject by the authors, pre-failure fatigue behaviour of intact rock is discussed. The post-failure behaviour of the intact rock in the laboratory...

Elastic modulus of thermally treated fine grained sandstone using non-contact laser extensometer

N.N. Sirdesai, Mahanta Bankim, P.G. Ranjith, T.N. Singh
Processes such as Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and underground disposal of nuclear waste involve the exposure of the surrounding rocks to extreme temperatures. At such high temperatures, the rock suffers substantial structural damage due to the anisotropy in the geotechnical...

Rock mass characterization of rock ledge in power house cavern at Shongtong Karcham Project, Himachal Pradesh

Ilamkar Prashant T, Singh Shyam Sundar
All the surface as well as underground hydropower stations has Electrical Overhead Travelling (EOT) cranes to facilitate erection and maintenance of the generating equipment. In the powerhouses built over ground, such cranes run on column and beam frames, provided for supporting the roof structure. However,...

Three-dimensional simulation for the rock fragmentation induced by TBM with GFEM

X.Y. Xu, X.H. Tang, Q.S. Liu, G. Singh
Theory about the interaction of TBM disc cutters and rock mass is critical for the design of the TBM machine. The numerical model of the interaction between cutters and rock, has important theoretical and practical meaning for developing a complete forecasting model of TBM performance. In this paper,...

Performance of polyurethane grouting to handle heavy seepage in tunnels

N. Rana, R. Nair
Fault zones, shear bands, underground water channels and other features in the Himalayan geology have made tunneling a very complex activity in the region. The major hydropower projects present construction problems but also render the project economically tough to handle. A case study is presented in...

3D-Numerical simulation of a mine using cohesion-softening, friction-softening and hardening behavior

P.K. Rajmeny, PK Jain, Vakili Abouzar
Numerical modeling is a potent tool to evaluate stability and to assist in long term planning of a mine along with predictive modeling of planned mining situations. However, selection of proper input properties regarding the rock mass still intrigues the Rock Mechanics community. A well-documented case...

Acoustic emission monitoring on Delhi quartzite under compressive loading

Negi Prateek, Chakraborty Tanusree
The acoustic emissions are the high frequency waves caused by the sudden release of energy from local points within a loaded rock specimen. In common terms these emissions can be related to the formation of microcracks within the rock structure. As the failure propagation in a brittle rock is very much...

Constitutive model equation for various types of rock specimen subjected to uniaxial compression loading

K. Arora, T. Chakraborty, K.S. Rao
Right from the outset of the experimental determination of rock stress-strain response, researchers are performing uniaxial and tri-axial compression testing on the cylindrical specimens. In the last two-three decades researchers have made an attempt to develop constitutive model considering anisotropy,...

Investigations on rock drillability applied to underground mine development vis-à-vis drill selection

B.N.V. Siva Prasad, V.M.S.R. Murthy, S.K. Pandey
Current underground mining scenario is inclining towards mechanized drilling and blasting since it proves advantageous in many ways like controlled excavation profile, limited ground vibrations and better ground control, higher rates of advance, enhanced mine development rates besides maintaining a balance...