Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Law and Human Rights 2020 (ICLHR 2020)

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60 articles
Proceedings Article

Human Rights in the Age of Pandemics

Ibrahim Kaya
Covid-19, which has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), is having very important impacts at the global level. By definition a pandemic concerns all states and therefore a close co-operation between states is essential to combat it in an adequate manner. States, sometimes...
Proceedings Article

The Pandemic and the Notion of Duties and Responsibilities Under Human Rights

Farid Sufian Shuaib
During the current COVID-19 pandemic, State authorities prescribe public health measures to reduce the risk or the rate of infection in the community. Such measures impose restrictions on the freedom of movement and how the public conduct their business such as the lock down order, physical distancing,...
Proceedings Article

State Responsibility Towards the Right to Health in the Age of Covid-19 Pandemic in Indonesia

Azhari Yahya
The right to health is universally recognized through Article 25 paragraph (1) of Universal Declaration of Human Rights saying that everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and...
Proceedings Article

Consumer Protection in E-Commerce: A Legal and Compliance Framework in the Digital Market

Dilshad Shaik, Ms.V. Poojasree
The consumer and merchant protection in business to consumers or business to business under E-Commerce has numerous serious threats viz., privacy, infringement of Intellectual Property Rights, Online Piracy, unsolicited commercial electronic advertisements and spamming, free speech and censorship and...
Proceedings Article

Harmonization of Law on Mutual Legal Assistance by Indonesia in Eradicating Transnational Economic Crime in ASEAN Economic Community

The establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community is aimed at increasing prosperity in the region. However, there are challenges and threats to achieving that goal. One of the serious threats in achieving the goals of the ASEAN Economic Community is Transnational Crime especially in economic activities...
Proceedings Article

Refugees and Migrants on the Sea Under African Continental Maritime Regime

Tajudeen Sanni
The movement of refugees and migrants across the sea has been on the increase in recent times. The United Nations Refugee Agency has often raised alarm on the increasing level of fatalities occurring as people move for safety or to greener pastures across the sea. In the case of Africa, the situation...
Proceedings Article

Collaborative Efforts in Handling Foreigners Stranded in Indonesia During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Koesmoyo Ponco Aji, Wilonotomo, Trisapto Wahyudi Agung Nugroho
The Covid-19 pandemic has significantly changed the pattern of human movement globally. Resistance to this visible enemy has led many countries to close their gates to restrict human passage. The closure of borders, restrictions on the movement of people and goods by many countries seem unable to prevent...
Proceedings Article

The Challenges of Global Migration in Perspective of International Humanitarian Law: Reframing the Refugees in Kepulauan Riau, Indonesia

Dhani Akbar, Dodi Lesmana, Gulmok Simbolon
the principle of humanity, distinction proportionally, precautions, and also prohibition of unnecessary suffering, with the main legal instruments 1907 Hague Regulations, 1949 Geneva Conventions, 1977 Additional Protocols and Customary IHL, Indonesia is one of the parties that did not ratify the 1951...
Proceedings Article

Challenge and Opportunity to Implement the Right to Education for Child Refugees in Indonesia

P Nugroho Adhi, I Gst Putu Agung, Bernadette Gitareja
The right to education is one of all humankind’s fundamental rights, regardless of their status. Thus, the right to education should also be available to refugees. The right of education for refugees is protected under the 1951 Refugee Convention, where party states should provide elementary education....
Proceedings Article

The Opportunities to Obtain Traditional Fisheries Rights for Aceh Traditional Fishermen

Sulaiman, M. Adli, Kamaruzzaman Bustamam-Ahmad, Teuku Muttaqin Mansur, Enzus Tinianus, Lia Sautunnida, Mukhlisuddin Ilyas
This paper aims to give the reasons why Acehnese traditional fishermen crossed the territorial borders of the country so that they were arrested in neighboring countries, as well as the opportunities for Acehnese traditional fishermen who sail in the west part of Indonesian water areas to get their traditional...
Proceedings Article

Fulfillment of Human Rights in Public Services During the Covid-19 Pandemic in Indonesia

Ampuan Situmeang, Winsherly Tan
Good governance can provide welfare to the community. Therefore, the administration of government in Indonesia should be able to take a serious concern to the principles of good governance as regulated in Article 89 of Act Number 30 of 2014 on Government Administration. One of its principles is to provide...
Proceedings Article

A Plot Twist: Dating Sexual Behavior Becomes Child Sexual Abuse

A Case Study of the Juvenile Offenders in East Java, Indonesia

Dewi Mirna Fitri Nur Cahyani, Permatasari Elok
Dating sexual behavior does not merely put adolescents into risky sexual behavior, but now it also puts them into a serious potential of crime. Since the dating sexual behavior with an underaged dating partner can be categorized as a child sexual abuse. It is because a person who is under 18 years old...
Proceedings Article

Health of Tribal Women in India- Need For a Progressive Vision

E. Prema, V. Shyam Sundar, P.R.L. Raja Venkatesan
India, a country known for its tradition and ancient practices, always respects women. Due to technological development, maintaining such tradition in all aspects is a challenge. Technological development has always influenced society and contributed to its welfare. Many social evils like sati, the status...
Proceedings Article

Does Broken-Home Family Contribute to Drugs Abuse in Correctional the Most?

Ahmad Jazuli, Haryono, Trisapto W.A. Nugroho, Insan Firdaus, Imam Lukito
Drug abuse in Indonesia is in the alert of the stage. Eradication efforts have been stepped up such as tightening security in border areas, transportation transit points such as airports and ports. The data shows that the number of narcotics cases in Indonesia is very large. In the last four years, there...
Proceedings Article

Policy on Child Protection During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Sujatmiko Sujatmiko, Willy Wibowo, Taruli Sihombing
The increase in Covid-19 cases in Indonesia was followed by a large-scale social restriction policy that aims to break the chain of distribution. On the other hand, this policy causes violence to vulnerable groups, especially children. Based on data from the Complaints Service section of the Ministry...
Proceedings Article

Community Involvement Strategies in Quality Legal Counseling

Oki Wahju Budijanto, Josefhin Mareta, Junaidi Abdillah, Zaihan H. Anggayudha
The strategic role of the National Law Development Agency (BPHN) in raising legal awareness has been carried out by various methods, namely direct legal counseling and indirect legal counseling. The results of the implementation of legal counseling were not as expected. Considering this strategic role,...
Proceedings Article

Constructing Human Rights Justiciability in Human Rights Courts in Indonesia

Firdaus, Oksimana Darmawan, Yuliana Primawardani
In Indonesia, human rights courts are ad hoc and are only intended for serious human rights courts. This means that there is no special human rights court that deals with the justiciability of human rights, particularly the justiciability for the fulfillment of limited economic, social and cultural rights....
Proceedings Article

The Restorative Justice: A Better Alternative to Reduce Recidivism

Vita Mahardhika
Reforming the criminal justice system in Indonesia from retributive to restorative rehabilitative or a model of balance of interests is imperative. Despite the debate around the emergence of a new justice system model, It is providing insights into the current system that could be improved, namely the...
Proceedings Article

Restorative Justice in the Settlement of Cases Through Formal Traditional Institutions in the Gayo Community of Aceh Province

Mohd. Din, Darmawan
One form of Aceh’s privileges is that it reinforces customary law and is formalized through regulation so that to occupy a position in a certain customary institution, they must have formal requirements and with these formal conditions, they do not necessarily understand customary law. This paper is...
Proceedings Article

The Strategic Role of Correctional Advisers in the Implementation of Narcotics Rehabilitation for Prisoners

Insan Firdaus, Haryono, Hakki Fajriando, Nurangga Firmanditya
Based on the prison database records, most of the prisoners in the correctional institution in Indonesiaan are narcotics convicts. Interestingly, many of these prisoners are addicts, abusers, and victims of drug abuse who must be rehabilitated immediately to recover from drug addiction. This is what...
Proceedings Article

Prisons and Detention Facilities Preparedness in Indonesia for Preventing and Control of Covid-19

Padmono Wibowo, Maki Zaenudin Subarkah, Mulyani Rahayu, Pramono, Naniek Pangestuti
The outbreak of a pandemic or the massive spread of Corona Virus Disease throughout the world and Indonesia since the end of 2019 has been concern to occur in prison and detention centers. Correctional Institution (prisons) and State Detention Center are institutions considered to be very vulnerable...
Proceedings Article

Preventing Coronavirus in Overcrowded Prisons in Indonesia

Ejo Imandeka, Zulfikri
Coronavirus (Covid-19) is a very dangerous virus that is classified as a respiratory disease. The spread of the Covid-19 is so rapid that more than 530.000 Indonesian people have been infected by the end of November 2020. Various methods are used by the Indonesian Government to avoid the spread of the...
Proceedings Article

The Effectiveness of Application of Diversi During Covid-19 Pandemic Period in Balai Pemasyarakatan Kelas II Pekalongan

Royyan Mahmuda Al’Arisyi Daulay
Diversi is an effort to resolve cases written in Law Number 11 of 2012 concerning the Juvenile Criminal Court System. Diversi efforts are realized by bringing together children who are faced with the law and victims and other parties related to the goal of recovery. The implementation of diversi has...
Proceedings Article

The Psychological Dynamics of Prisoners Undergoing Assimilation Program During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Khoirun Nisak
One of the problems in Indonesian penitentiaries is overcapacity. Most of the penitentiaries have exceeded more than 100% of their capacity. The implementation of the assimilation program that was previously carried out independently in a penitentiary or in cooperation with the third parties by providing...
Proceedings Article

Experimental Study of the Effectiveness of Assertive Writing Therapy on Children’s Self-Acceptance in the Tangerang Juvenile Correctional Facility Facing Covid 19

Galih Ismoyo Yantho, Achmad Nurhadi, Nur Fitriah, Yuni Sri Dwijayanti
Based on data on the website of the Directorate General of Corrections, currently there are 55 children who serve a sentence in Tangerang Juvenile Correctional Facility (LPKA). LPKA provides space for education, care, alleviation, skills training, care as well as supervision for children in difficult...
Proceedings Article

Validity and Legal Protection of Defendant in an Online Trial System

Raja Mohamad Rozi, Nisya
One of the functions of criminal procedural law is to enforce material law. The point is to reveal the material truth. Since it was enacted, the criminal procedure code has not been separated from the “test” of its application. The various kinds of exercise include: professionalism of law enforcement,...
Proceedings Article

The Effectiveness of Virtual Trials for Criminal Proceeding as an Effort to Mitigate the Spread of Corona Virus During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Fadilla Jamila, Melantik Rompegading, Wahyu Hidayat
The first case of Covid-19 in Indonesia was found on 2 March 2020. Although enforcing health protocol is essential in this situation, the law enforcement to the community could not be set aside, especially for criminal proceeding highly related to human rights. Therefore, following the rise of the domestic...
Proceedings Article

The Implementation of the Law of Criminal Procedure in Judicial Process During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Nevey Varida Ariani, Suharyo, Ulang Mangun Sosiawan, Yuliyanto, Hilmi Ardani Nasution, Fuzi Narindrani
The spread of the 2019 coronavirus disease (covid-19) with the growing number of cases and deaths across regions and countries has impacted political, economic, social, cultural, legal, defense and security aspects as well as public welfare, including an impact on trial that can now be conducted virtually....
Proceedings Article

The Rights of Defendant in the Virtual Court Examination During Covid-19 Pandemic at Banda Aceh District Court

Suhaimi, Roslaini Ramli, Enzus Tinianus
A defendant is a person who is accused of having committed an is included in a criminal act based on the evidence obtained, which results in being examined and tried in court. The examination of criminal cases at all levels of examination is carried out in accordance with the Criminal Procedure Code...
Proceedings Article

Geothermal Management Policy in the Order of Energy Independence in Aceh Besar District

Yanis Rinaldi, Irvianty Irvianty
Aceh Besar District has many potentials for new and renewable energy, one of which is geothermal energy. In order for geothermal energy management to provide economic benefits, be accepted by the community, and be safe from environmental aspects, its management must be formulated in a regional policy...
Proceedings Article

The Form of Justice in Resolving Capital Market Dispute Resolution

Ayup Suran Ningsih
The Indonesia Capital Market Arbitration Board (BAPMI), established to settle capital markets disputes when there is a written agreement between the disputing parties. is the article aims to explain that BAPMI is expected to resolve disagreements capital markets more effective than court and managed...
Proceedings Article

The Implementation of Business and Human Rights Principles to Palm Oil Companies in Aceh Province

Khairani Arifin, Safrina Safrina
Since 2011, the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) have been endorsed by the UN Human Rights Council, and Indonesia has also agreed to implement the guide by issuing the “Principles of Business and Human Rights”. This guide was prepared with concerns about business...
Proceedings Article

Cash Waqf a Tool to Support Children Education in Covid-19 Pandemic

Faisal Faisal
The outbreak of Covid-19 restricts public activities. The real impact of Covid-19 is the decrease in the income of some people. Employees stay at home. Traders stop selling temporarily because the market is closed. Transport drivers have reduced passengers. Everyone has a lot of needs. Such food, shelter,...
Proceedings Article

Psychological Review of Social-Cultural Rights in the Covid-19 Pandemic

Study of Mangan Ora Mangan Kumpul Culture

Boniy Taufiqurrahman
Mangan ora mangan sing penting kumpul is the one of cultures originating from the Java region. The existence of the Covid-19 pandemic is very contradictory to this culture. This is because the government has implemented a policy of physical distancing and Large-Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB), as well...
Proceedings Article

Will Creative Industries Survive in Industrial Revolution 4.0? An Experience from Batik Tulis Lasem, Indonesia

Ali Roziqin, Amaliana Nur Fajrina
The development of industrial revolution 4.0 impacted all aspects of human life. One of the aspects that predicted the future is the use of the internet, which will be increasingly significant in the industrial world. Indeed, this condition impacts the development of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)...
Proceedings Article

The Effect of the Coffee Roasting Machine on Increasing Production of Arabic Coffee KSM Galuh Lestari Dusun Gunungmalang in Indonesia

Ria Manurung, Eko Apriliyanto, Oskar Ika Adi Nugroho
The natural potential of Gunungmalang hamlet is in the field of agriculture, especially Arabica coffee. Coffee farmers form an association, namely the Galuh Lestari Community Self-Help Group (KSM), which in roasting Arabica coffee still uses simple equipment in form of drums. Galuh Lestari KSM encounter...
Proceedings Article

Small Medium Enterprises Affected by COVID-19 on the Lathon Program

Hilarion Hamjen, Shera Mayangsari Suwito, Annisa Muthia Yana Ariyanti
Lathon is a marketplace application for street vendors and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) products developed from the Hilarion program, one of the winners of the COVID-19 INA Ideathon 2020 organized by the Ministry of Research and Technology/National Agency for Research and Innovation of Indonesia....
Proceedings Article

Legal Protection of E-Commerce Consumers Through Privacy Data Security

Sugeng, Annisa Fitria
The development of e-commerce has increased significantly, along with the increasing number of internet and social media users in Indonesia. The rapid growth of e-commerce has gradually changed the way consumers purchase goods and services. The most dominant use of the internet is to offer a variety...
Proceedings Article

Consumer Protection in E-Commerce: A Case Study on Lodging Applications

Durianto Darmadi, Riyadi Slamet, Santiago Faisal
As the world no longer has boundaries with everyone being connected to the internet, we can access information from other parts of the world in an instant, without having to go anywhere. The internet makes it easy for us to access data and news. In addition, the internet provides convenience in doing...
Proceedings Article

The Settlement of Consumer Disputes by Virtual Mediation Particularly on Banking and Buying Services Online

Marulak Pardede, Henry Donald Lbn Toruan, Mosgan Situmorang, Syprianus Aristeus
The increasingly massive spread of the Coronavirus Dissease 2019 (COVID-19) virus in Indonesia has led the government to adopt a large-scale social restrictions (PSBB) policy in a sustainable manner. This policy limits human mobilization as an effort to break the chain of spreading Covid-19. Community...
Proceedings Article

The Role of Parents in the Prevention of Cyber Bullying in Covid 19 Pandemic

Nursariani Simatupang
Before the covid 19 pandemic, children studied at school and interacted directly with their friends including the practice of direct bullying. Children can not learn and interact directly, because they have to learn online from home. Learning online using information technology devices such as smartphones....
Proceedings Article

Choosing a Copyright Assessment Method in Evaluating a Fiduciary Guarantee Object in Indonesia

Taufik. H. Simatupang, Nizar Apriansyah, Trisapto Wahyudi Agung Nugroho, Edward James Sinaga, Antonio Rajoli Ginting, Adis Nurhayati
The theorem states that developed countries whose natural resources are unarguable again. Nowadays, the development of a nation is determined by the mastery of science and technology that can generate products and processes that are valuable, economically. Countries in the world are competing to provide...
Proceedings Article

Technology Acceptance Model in the Usage of Regulation for Publication Media Services in the Ministry of Law and Human Rights

Edward James Sinaga, Ahmad Sanusi, Hakki Fajriando, Imam Lukito, Victorio Hariara Situmorang, Rizki Bagus Prasetio
Information technology currently influences the development of many areas of human life. The application of a technology system is expected to provide benefits and convenience in identifying and accessing information. This technology innovation was also carried out by the Ministry of Law and Human Rights....
Proceedings Article

Evaluation of the Usage of Open Data Portal in Banda Aceh Local Government in Indonesia

M. Zuhri, Muhammad Afi Ramadhan
This paper addresses issues on principle of openness and specifically, the open data as part of public information disclosure, open government, and e-government. As the founding member of the Open Government Partnership (OGP) since 2011, Indonesia is actively encouraging an open government practice and...
Proceedings Article

The Urgency of Utilizing Open Data Platform by the Foreigner Supervision Team to Promote Good Governance During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Rita Kusuma Astuti, Koesmoyo Ponco Aji, Wilonotomo
Ministry of Law and Human Rights governenace in Indonesia has entered the digital era. This is in line with government direction and hopes in the conception of Making Indonesia 4.0 in 2018. In terms of services, immigration control, and implementation of supporting facilitative elements, simultaneous...
Proceedings Article

The Right to Obtain Covid-19 Information for Those with Disabilities

Study of Government Communication on the Instagram Account of the Indonesian Ministry of Health

Amri Dunan, Kisna Nengsih, Bambang Mudjianto, Ahmad Budi Setiawan
The Indonesian Ministry of Health is at the forefront of delivering the latest information related to the development of Covid-19 to reach all levels of society using mass media and social media. For social media, the Instagram @kemenkes_ri account is one of the social media which actively delivers Covid-19...
Proceedings Article

Mapping the Social Movement Pattern During COVID-19 Outbreaks with the Twitter Metadata by Using Social Network Analysis (SNA) Method

Mohammad Thoriq Bahri, Yusuf Hakim, Rezza Fauzy Sucipto
The National positivity rates reached 14,1 percent in September 2020. More than 4000 cases were confirmed in a day, pushing the government to implement a strict policy that potentially creates pros and cons and may trigger social movement in the affected society. In the theoretical framework, the social...
Proceedings Article

Legitimation of Qanun in the Indonesian Law System

Ahyar, Evi Djuniarti, Muhaimin, Eko Noer Kristiyanto, Ridwan Nurdin, Ali Abubakar
The Aceh Government is given several special authority in managing its regions. One of the authorities is the application of Islamic values to local communities which are regulated based on Qanun. Qanun is a statutory regulation similar to a province/district/city regional regulation that regulates the...
Proceedings Article

Regulatory Reform: An Idea to Arrange Regulations in Indonesia

Wicipto Setiadi, Beniharmoni Harefa
The current regulatory condition in Indonesia, both from the quantity and quality perspectives, is relatively miserable. A non-proportional number of regulations may lead to bad regulations which tend to be sectoral, overlapping, multi-interpretations, conflicting, and unharmonious. Such a regulatory...
Proceedings Article

Protection of Human Rights in the Amendment of the 1945 Constitution of The Republic of Indonesia

Harisman Harisman
The inclusion of human rights arrangements in the 1945 Amendment Constitution does not mean that human rights have been fully fulfilled. Many human rights problems still need serious attention from various parties, not only the state and the government but also the community and individuals. The amendment...
Proceedings Article

Enabling People with Disabilities’ Dream to Become Public Servants

Donny Michael, Okky Chahyo Nugroho, Abby Marutama, Marwandianto
In the current global development, the facts show that people with disabilities tend to be vulnerable. One of the rights of persons with disabilities that needs to be supported is the right to work, especially those administered by the government. This article aims to analyze the recruitment process...
Proceedings Article

The Covid-19 Pandemic and Its Implications for Passport Services in Indonesia

Lukman Supriadi, Tony Yuri Rahmanto, Penny Naluria Utami, Gilang Azhari
The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis that is already having devastating impacts on thousands of people in Indonesia, and thus it rapidly demands the people to adapt in various sectors of life. With regard to this issue, the New Normal discourse will broadly limit interactions among citizens....
Proceedings Article

Healthcare Protection for Gig Workers: A Brief Case During Pandemic

Siciliya Mardian Yoel, M. Wachid Hasym
The social distancing strategy is one of the policy strategies in handling the COVID-19 and following other countries, in March 2020, Indonesia also established a Large-Scale Social Restriction (PSBB) policy which requires citizens to stop various activities in public spaces. However, not everyone can...
Proceedings Article

A Regulatory Model to Fight Covid-19 Plague Attack

Rachmat Trijono, Muhar Junef, Jamilus, Diana Yusyanti, Indah Harlina, Damrah Mamang, Danu Suryani
Regulations to fight plague attacks can be identified to have specific characters. This character forms a specific model. The regulations for dealing with plague are numerous. Specifics character of the regulations for fighting the plague attack is first, all of the regulations were directed to fight...
Proceedings Article

An Analysis of the Indonesian Government Policy on the Lockdown from the perspective of Human Rights

Andryan, Farid Wajdi, Benito Asdhie Kodiyat, Taufik Hidayat Lubis
Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19), has become a deadly threat in countries of the world, including Indonesia. As a rule of law, Indonesia regulates matters of emergency which are synonymous with the term state of emergency. To deal with the spread of Covid-19, the Indonesian government has issued...
Proceedings Article

Public Behavior and Attitude Towards Government Policies During the Pandemic of COVID-19 in Indonesia

Erisva Hakiki Purwaningsih, Qur’ani Dewi Kusumawardani, Marudur Pandapotan Damanik
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected global social life. By far, cases of COVID-19 transmission in Indonesia have not shown a significant decrease. Preventing the spread of COVID-19 outbreak requires society awareness to consistently implement health protocols and comply with government policies. This...
Proceedings Article

Legal Aspects on the Implementation of Criminal Sanctions in Regional Regulations to Enforce Health Protocols in the Era of Covid-19 Pandemic and Its Problems

Suharyo Suharyo, Yuliyanto Yuliyanto, Farikhah Yuni Susilowati, Nevi Anggraeni Raharjo, Siswanto Budi Nugroho
This study aims to determine and analyze the approach taken by some Indonesian provincial-level of governments to overcome the Covid-19 pandemic through the formation of regional regulations which incorporate and apply the form of criminal sanctions. This study uses a qualitative-juridical normative...
Proceedings Article

Administrative Measures Problems in Medan Mayor Regulation Number 11 of 2020 Concerning Health Quarantine in the Accelerated Handling of Covid-19

Eka N.A.M. Sihombing, Cynthia Hadita
Medan Mayor Regulation Number 11 of 2020 concerning Health Quarantine in the Context of Accelerating Handling of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Medan City, hereinafter referred to as Regulation of Mayor (Perwal) COVID. Based on the COVID-19 regulation, the Medan city government began to carry...
Proceedings Article

The Patient Data Protection from the Using of Big Data During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia

Jose Guardiola, Rica Donna
Big Data is a technology that accommodates large and complex databases to be analyzed by a computing system to construct a more concise information. Indonesia is not the only country that utilizes big data to compile databases from public, for instance, during COVID-19 Pandemic Indonesia has adopted...
Proceedings Article

Interreligous Marriage According to Indonesian Legislation

Kadriah Kadriah, Teuku Saiful, Muhammad Naufal Hidayat
Article 2 paragraph (1) of Law No. 1 of 1974 states that marriage is valid if it is performed according to each religion and belief. Article 2 paragraph (2) continues that every marriage must be registered. The recorded marriage is a legal marriage as regulated in Article 2 paragraph (1). Thus, in Indonesia,...