Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2015
Research Article

1. Energy drink usage among university students in a Caribbean country: Patterns of use and adverse effects

Sandra D. Reid, Jonathan Ramsarran, Rachel Brathwaite, Sarika Lyman, Ariane Baker, D’Andra C. Cornish, Stefan Ganga, Zahrid Mohammed, Avinash T. Sookdeo, Cathrine K. Thapelo
Pages: 103 - 116
Objective: There has been little inquiry addressing whether or not concerns about adverse effects of energy drink usage are relevant in the Caribbean. This survey investigated energy drink usage and adverse consequences among tertiary level students in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: A cross-sectional...
Research Article

2. Lebanese medical students’ intention to deliver smoking cessation advice

Hoda Jradi, Mary Ellen Wewers, Phyllis P. Pirie, Philip F. Binkley, Amy K. Ferketich
Pages: 117 - 123
Objectives: Objectives of this study were to examine the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and determine how they predict Lebanese medical students’ behavioral intention to advise patients to quit smoking. Study design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 191 medical students...
Research Article

3. Adherence to medications and associated factors: A cross-sectional study among Palestinian hypertensive patients

Rowa’ Al-Ramahi
Pages: 125 - 132
Objective: To assess adherence of Palestinian hypertensive patients to therapy and to investigate the effect of a range of demographic and psychosocial variables on medication adherence. Methods: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken at a group of outpatient clinics...
Research Article

4. A cross-sectional study of pediatric eye care perceptions in Ghana, Honduras, and India

Daryl Ramai, Ryan Elliott, Shoshanna Goldin, Tejas Pulisetty
Pages: 133 - 142
Of the more than 1.4 million blind children worldwide, 75% live in developing countries. To reduce the prevalence of childhood blindness and associated diseases, attention is given to understanding the perceptions and level of awareness held by caregivers. This understanding can enable tailored health...
Research Article

5. Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial utilization in a Canadian tertiary-care teaching hospital

Colin Lee, Sandra A.N. Walker, Nick Daneman, Marion Elligsen, Lesley Palmay, Bryan Coburn, Andrew Simor
Pages: 143 - 150
Objectives: Inappropriate antimicrobial use can promote antimicrobial resistance, which is associated with increased patient morbidity and mortality. Identifying the pattern of antimicrobial use can provide data from which targeted antimicrobial stewardship interventions can be made. The primary objective...
Research Article

6. Occlusal characteristics and prevalence of associated dental anomalies in the primary dentition

Seema Lochib, K.R. Indushekar, Bhavna Gupta Saraf, Neha Sheoran, Divesh Sardana
Pages: 151 - 157
Introduction: Morphological variations in primary dentition are of great concern to a pediatric dentist as it may pose clinical problems like dental caries, delayed exfoliation and also anomalies in the permanent dentition, such as impaction of successors, supernumerary teeth, permanent double teeth...
Research Article

7. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and molecular typing of salmonella typhi isolated from patients with typhoid fever in Lebanon

Souha S. Kanj, Zeina A. Kanafani, Marwa Shehab, Nisreen Sidani, Tania Baban, Kedak Baltajian, Ghenwa K. Dakdouki, Mohamad Zaatari, George F. Araj, Rima Hanna Wakim, Ghassan Dbaibo, Ghassan M. Matar
Pages: 159 - 165
The objective of this study was to examine the epidemiology and the clinical manifestations of typhoid fever as well as the susceptibility and strain relatedness of Salmonella typhi isolates in Lebanon from 2006 to 2007. A total of 120 patients with typhoid fever were initially identified from various...
Research Article

8. Cardiovascular risk factors in semi-urban communities in southwest Nigeria: Patterns and prevalence

Rotimi Oluyombo, Michael A. Olamoyegun, Oluwasegun Olaifa, Sandra O. Iwuala, Oluwole A. Babatunde
Pages: 167 - 174
Introduction: Over 80% of cardiovascular deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries; most of these deaths are due to modifiable risk factors. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence and pattern of major cardiovascular risk factors in both men and women older than 18 years. Methods: This...
Research Article

9. Efficacy of prophylactic dexamethasone in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting

Leila Sekhavat, Robab Davar, Shekoufeh Behdad
Pages: 175 - 179
Objective: Many trials have been conducted with regard to the relative benefits of prophylactic anti-emetic interventions given alone or in combination, yet the results remain unknown. This study reviewed the efficacy of a single prophylactic dose of dexamethasone on postoperative nausea or vomiting...
Research Article

10. A cluster-randomised controlled trial to test the efficacy of facemasks in preventing respiratory viral infection among Hajj pilgrims

Mandy Wang, Osamah Barasheed, Harunor Rashid, Robert Booy, Haitham El Bashir, Elizabeth Haworth, Iman Ridda, Edward C. Holmes, Dominic E. Dwyer, Jonathan Nguyen-Van-Tam, Ziad A. Memish, Leon Heron
Pages: 181 - 189
Background: Cost-effective interventions are needed to control the transmission of viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in mass gatherings. Facemasks are a promising preventive measure, however, previous studies on the efficacy of facemasks have been inconclusive. This study proposes a large-scale...
Research Article

11. Work productivity among adults with varied Body Mass Index: Results from a Canadian population-based survey

Arnaldo Sanchez Bustillos, Kris Gregory Vargas, Raul Gomero-Cuadra
Pages: 191 - 199
Background: The relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and work productivity, including absenteeism and presenteeism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine work productivity among adults with varied BMI using population-based data. Methods: Data source was the 2009–2010 Canadian...
Short Communication

12. Terrorism-related trauma in Africa, an increasing problem

Maryam Alfa-Wali, Kaji Sritharan, Mira Mehes, Fizan Abdullah, Shahnawaz Rasheed
Pages: 201 - 203
Global terrorist activities have increased significantly over the past decade. The impact of terrorism-related trauma on the health of individuals in low- and middle-income countries is under-reported. Trauma management in African countries in particular is uncoordinated, with little or no infrastructure...
Short Communication

13. Tuberculosis screening among Bolivian sex workers and their children

Silvia S. Chiang, Jessica K. Paulus, Chi-Cheng Huang, P.K. Newby, Dora Castellón Quiroga, Renée Boynton-Jarrett, Lara Antkowiak
Pages: 205 - 210
Bolivian sex workers were more likely than other employed women to report tuberculosis screening only if they reported HIV screening. Of all women with household tuberculosis exposure, <40% reported screening for themselves or their children. Coupling tuberculosis screening with sex workers’ mandatory...