Proceedings of the Annual Civic Education Conference (ACEC 2018)

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165 articles
Proceedings Article

Government's Efforts in Developing Civic Culture : The Malays Palembang Provided Through Palembang Emas 2018 Programs

Asmaul Husna, Idrus Affandi
This research aims to find out the development of civic culture for Palembang Malay through Palembang EMAS Program 2018. Indonesian culture cannot be separated from Malay cultural root, and Palembang city is one of the cities which is very thick with its Malayness. Therefore, the Government of Palembang...
Proceedings Article

Strengthening Democracy for Women in Brebes

Muhammad Japar, Dini Nur Fadhillah
NGO movements in Indonesia as well as other developing countries, initially left to the left, then take on the position of movement at the local level to improve the welfare of their communities. Simultaneously, populist movements supported by the World Bank that support neo-liberal projects also develop...
Proceedings Article

Perception towards Accounting Profession and Parental Influence to Predict Students Career Choices

Badingatus Solikhah, Trisni Suryarini, Samsul Bahri
This study aims to obtain empirical evidence on the influence of student perceptions about accountant profession and parental influence toward students’ career choices to become a public accountant. Based on Theory of Reason Action, this study also examines the effect of both independent variables on...
Proceedings Article

Intercultural Competence to Maintain the Nation’s Identity

Diah Vitri Widayanti, Fathur Rokhman, Ida Zulaeha, Sri Rejeki Urip
Learning a foreign language contains not only linguistics elements but also cultural elements. Introduce and teach a new culture that contains different perception, values and way of life from the culture of learner may cause the problems. Therefore, learning a foreign language should understand foreign...
Proceedings Article

An Exploratory Study of Performance-Based Budgeting Practices in Indonesian Private School

Agus Wahyudin, Agung Yulianto, Badingatus Solikhah
The demands of bureaucratic reform are challenges and prospects for educational institutions. In Indonesia, private school management has a very different character from public schools because it has a high financial dependence on foundations. Sources of funding at private schools come from parents,...
Proceedings Article

Psychological Aspects of Citizenship Characters Development

Luthfi Fathan Dahriyanto
Human have two modalities, namely physical and psychological. These two modalities are changing with the growth and development of the individual. As a result of these changes, cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspects of the individual progressed to maturity. Psychology explains these changes in...
Proceedings Article

Ethical Values in Indonesian Proverbs as Character Education Investments

Rika Widawati, Ahmad Fuadin, Welsi Damayanti
Proverb is a cultural heritage that became one of the enrichments of Indonesian literary works. Similar to other types of literary works, proverbs contain moral values that are believed to be a vehicle of character education for youth learners. The purpose of this study is to analyze the ethical values...
Proceedings Article

The Integration of Prince Antasari's Character Values into Indonesian Civics Education Learning

Dian Agus Ruchliyadi, Sapriya Sapriya, Kokom Komalasari, Rahmat Rahmat
This study aims to examine and organize the integration of character values from the life history of Prince Antasari's to the Civic Education. This qualitative research was taken place in South Kalimantan Indonesia. Data collection was done through documentation and interview studies, while data validation...
Proceedings Article

Students Entrepreneurial Character Building : Through Lembaga Dakwah Kampus (LDK)

Baidhillah Riyadhi, Zulfikar Zulfikar, Sofyan Sauri, Yadi Ruyadi
The actualization of Islamic values within the daily life of Muslims is a necessity. The campus has determined as a place for student to creatively apply the faith and knowledge. The Higher education has ability to drive its policy and resources in order to support the student creativity including in...
Proceedings Article

Human Rights Education Establishment for Elementary School in Kendal Regency, Central Java, Indonesia

Vita Santa Kusuma Chrisantina, Sugiyo Sugiyo, Wahyu Hardyanto, Suwito Eko Purnomo
Indonesia as a developing country has a high number of human rights violations to children. Due to the high number of human rights violations, it is needed a new system through education system. In line with United Nation recommendation about human rights education, this research has a focus on establishing...
Proceedings Article

Enhancing Society Civic Virtue Through Awareness of Traffic Dicipline

Titi Alawiyah, Dasim Budimansyah
In Bandung, Indonesia, traffic violations are still quite high and continue to increase every year. Traffic violations are mostly committed by adolescents. The purpose of this study is to find out how the implementation dikmas lantas program in order to foster awareness of traffic discipline in the city...
Proceedings Article

The Paradigm of Value Ideology of Pancasila as the Basis of Citizenship Education in the Global Perspective

Suwarma Al Muchtar, Dede Iswandi
Negative influences of globalization has eroded the values of Pancasila Ideology as the nation identity and becoming a serious problem in Indonesia. This research aims to examine and describe the values the philosophy of Pancasila as the core of citizenship education in accordance with a global perspective....
Proceedings Article

Understanding of Geography Teacher towards Geopark as Learning Resources

Igna Juli Triana, Mamat Ruhimat
Learning practices, including learning of Geography is expected in visual form. Geography, has a lot of learning resources, whether it’s physical or even socio-cultural. The aim of this research is to reveal teacher knowledge towards Geopark as a learning resources of geography. Research was conducted...
Proceedings Article

Understanding of Human Rights through Civic Education in The 21st Century

Eneng Martini, Meiwatizal Trihastuti, Alif Adithya Candra
The reality is that there are still many human rights abuses that we see both among adults and school-aged children, this has to do with the level of understanding of human rights itself, as for the purpose of this paper is to explore how human rights understanding is associated with Ongoing Citizenship...
Proceedings Article

Perceptions of Indonesian Citizenship Teachers on Teaching Tolerance in Schools through Citizenship Education

Asep Rudi Casmana
This study examines the teacher’s perception of teaching tolerance within citizenship education in Indonesia. It seeks to identify the teachers’ opinion about the purpose of teaching tolerance, and the content knowledge and the teaching method used by citizenship teachers to educate students to be more...
Proceedings Article

Management Model of Character Education Development In High Education through Dormitory

M Yahya Arwiyah, M. Yahya Arwiyah, Runik Machfiroh, M Djoko, A M A Suyanto
Character education which has not become a culture yet is a pattern of behaviors and ways of acting that have been automatically formed into a living part of an educational community. This research aims to obtain a real picture and analysis of the management model of character education development in...
Proceedings Article

Reflective Core Values the Life of the Sundanese

Asep Sjamsulbachri, Deni Zein Tarsidi
Today, there are many Sundanese who do not have the typical personality and behavior of Sundanese people. Through this research, it is expected to get a picture of the phenomenon of instilling the values of Sundanese by habituation. The method used in this research is phenomenology method, with data...
Proceedings Article

The Implementation of Project Citizen in Contextual Teaching and Learning Approach

Eka Jayadiputra
The gap between the values taught and the behavior of citizens today is increasingly alarming. Student misconduct, drugs, rampant corruption practices, and other negative behaviors that conflict with values of belief, honesty, and responsibility need the attention of all parties, especially the education...
Proceedings Article

Reorientation of Values of The Indonesian Diversity (ke-Bhineka-an Indonesia) to Reaffirming the National Identity

Tetep Tetep
Indonesia was born as an independent state based on plurality like as, culture, ethnicity, religion and race as the power of the birth of NKRI in the pledge of Youth Pledge. Currently the Indonesian is being tested identity and ideology of nationalism with the increasingly widespread cases of intolerance,...
Proceedings Article

The Essence of the Study of Value in Education: The case study of Students at Junior High School in Sumedang

Sebastian Gary Prakoso, Arifin Arifin
Todays globalization have shown a pattern of imbalance in international relationship. The relationship between advanced nation and growing nation or “the looser and the winner” (according to Micklethwait and Wooldridge in (“A Future Perfect: The Challenge and Hidden Promise of Globalization”) are still...
Proceedings Article

Study of Civic Disposition Based on the Way of Life of Kuta Traditional Society in Keeping the Balance of Nature

Trisna Sukmayadi, Supriyadi Supriyadi
Indonesian citizens who are multicultural have various local wisdoms. Local wisdom becomes a strength to build the character of nation and civilization. One of local wisdom which is kept until now is the way of life of Kuta traditional society in keeping the balance of nature. This study aims to reveal...
Proceedings Article

Nationalism Values of Southwest Aceh Society Post Conflict

Rizal Fahmi, Endang Danial
Indonesia is a multiethnic country and has various kinds of tribe. This diversity will invoke various kinds of problem, one of them is conflict. Conflict will occur if it is not countered by high nationalism spirit in the life of nation and state. The prolonged conflict in Aceh result in the shift of...
Proceedings Article

The Role of Political Parties in Building Loyalty Women Cadres through Political Education

Hariyanti Hariyanti, Cecep Darmawan, Iim Siti Masyitoh
This study aims to describe how the role of political parties in building the loyalty of women cadres through political education. Efforts to build the political literacy of women cadres through political education need to be balanced with loyalty to the party in order to strengthen the party system...
Proceedings Article

Uventira as A Symbol of Environmental Movement

Jamaludin Jamaludin, Imran Imran, Sunarto Amus, Zumrotin Nisa
This research aims at discovering and reviewing the information of the pattern of acts and public opinion on the values of Uventira local wisdom. This research employed qualitative approach using ethnography method. To Kaili has mythical beliefs of the invisible city Uventira which constructed as a zone...
Proceedings Article

National Movement of Mental Revolution in Developing Character Education of Indonesian Generation

Saiful Saiful, M Nasir Basyah, Akhyar Akhyar
The National Movement of the Mental Revolution (GNRM) as mandated by the President of the Republic of Indonesia (Ir. Joko Widodo) on the official speech at the Regional Representative Council on 14 August 2015. The National Movement of the Mental Revolution becomes a new life movement which is capable...
Proceedings Article

Development of Values Transformation Modes of Local Wisdom of Baduy Culture to Form Student Character through Civic Learning in Elementary School: A study of Attitude of Elementary School Students in Kasepuhan Citorek Adat Area, Lebak Regency, Banten Province

Elan Elan, Sapriya Sapriya, Aim Abdulkarim
The development of science and technology has influenced people's mindset and orientation at all levels. The rapid development of information technology also influence the behavior of some people, including the character of the students. Having a good character means having the ability to communicate...
Proceedings Article

Understanding Values ​​of Democracy through Student Moral Movement to Achieve a Good Governance in Garut Regency

Jamilah Jamilah
This research is motivated by the emergence of various student movements in Garut district that occurred due to dissatisfaction with the performance of the government Garut regency. The movement takes place as a form of responsibility of an academic who has the understanding and experience of how to...
Proceedings Article

The Procession and Meaning of Sengen Tradition in Gayo Lues Society

Erna Hayati
This study is about the Procession and Meaning of Sengen Tradition in Gayo Lues Society. This study try to reveal the tradition which is believed by Gayo Lues society as a sacred cultural heritage which is well known as the term Sengen. In Sangen tradition, a child who is mismatch with his/her parent...
Proceedings Article

Character Education Model in Family to Create Good Citizen

Lisna Wati, Dsdang Sundawa
Character education is an education that teach about human behavior values. Family is first and primary environment for a child because its task is to lay the first basics for child development before they come into broader environment. Thus, the role and function of family become crucial and responsible...
Proceedings Article

Values of Rinjani Charter in The Life of Suku Sasak at West Nusa Tenggara

Sri Rejeki
The purpose of this research is to know the influence of Rinjani Charter values in the life of Sasak tribe in West Nusa Tenggara. The subject of this research is one of the figures directly involved in the preparation of the Rinjani Charter. The object of the study is the text of the Rinjani Charter...
Proceedings Article

Teacher's Strategy in Student Deradicalization Efforts through Enforcement of the Pancasila Ideology within Civic Education Materials in Indonesia

Winarno Winarno, Wijianto Wijianto
Pancasila is an ideology and the foundation of national philosophy principle that was final for Indonesia. Although it was final, it does not mean that Pancasila was running and had an impact on the Indonesian people in accordance with national goals. The aimed of the study was to describe the teacher's...
Proceedings Article

Preservation of Bancakan Tradition in Strengthening Indonesia’s National Identity

Ridwan Hasyim, Rahmat Rahmat
The socio-cultural wealth of Indonesian plural and compound societies provides a different culture in each region. This article discusses the preservation of Bancakan tradition that is held by the villagers of Gegesik Lor as one of the factors that strengthen national identity. This research was conducted...
Proceedings Article

The Local Wisdom Values of Custom Society in Cisitu Lebak Banten in Effort to Build Nation Character

Yudha Dana Prahara, Kokom Komalasari, Iim Siti Masyitoh
Sundanese culture has certain characteristic that distinguish with the other culture, it is known as religious society. In the Sundanese culture the magical balance (in the science of customary law called religious magic) is maintained by performing traditional ceremonies, while the social balance of...
Proceedings Article

Moral Aspect in the Law Enforcement in Indonesia: Prophetic Perspective

Siti Zuliyah, Triwahyuningsih Triwahyuningsih
Law enforcement in Indonesia is still moving around the positivism paradigm, the view that law does not derive from God or the universe. Instead, law comes from human, separating it from morality. Automatically, it leads to isolate law from moral and religious values, making it a mere instrument, a la...
Proceedings Article

Utilization of Multimedia-Based Learning Materials on Civic Education Courses in Shaping the Character of College Students

Edwin Nurdiansyah, Nurdin Nurdiansyah, Kurnisar Kurnisar, Sri Artati Waluyati, Husnul Fatihah
Civic education is one of the Subjects which are compulsory in the curriculum of higher education in Indonesia, it shows that civic education has an important role in the Indonesia human development character. The success of civic education will be realized if citizens have identity soulless Pancasila,...
Proceedings Article

The Meaning of Modernization and Education in Tambora Village Tradition Community, in Tambora Mountain Slope, Dompu Regency, West Nusa Tenggara

Nur Hadi
Since the Tambora Mountain erupted in 1815, some of the surrounding kingdoms are buried alongside the existing cultural heritage. For a long time, the area around Tambora became desolate from the dynamics of civilization. Community at the slope of the mountain re-formed and developed slowly. The twist...
Proceedings Article

The Waqf Empowerment as an Alternative Solution to Overcome Unemployment in West Java

Prayoga Bestari, Syaifullah Syaifullah
One of the implementations of decentralization managed by the regional government is the management of waqf land. Amid the social problems of the Indonesian people and the demands for economic prosperity today, the existence of waqf institutions is very urgent and strategic. The effort to empower waqf...
Proceedings Article

Discovery Learning Model’s for the Development of Honest Character and Student Responsibility

Nanang Sunarya, Cecep Darmawan
The learning model is one of the factors that affect the achievement of learners in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to determine the application of the discovery learning model learning as honest character development and student responsibility.This study uses Classroom action research....
Proceedings Article

The Role of Political Parties in the Political Education of Party Cadres to Form Responsible Characters: Case study on the DPD Party Gerindra West Java

Muhamad Hijran, Suwarma Al Muchtar, Sunatra Ratnadi
The Political party is Considered as a container or a site of political education towards Cadres. Thus, Spake education has political significance as attempt of teaching citizens about Reviews their rights and duty as well as responsibilities. This is where the urgency of political education for the...
Proceedings Article

Internalization Of Character Education For Children through Environment Learning Approach: The Value Of Religious, Social Care For And Care For The Environment

Siti Dewi Maharani, Atikah Syamsi
This study discusses about the internalization of character education for children in the creative aspects and values, as well as concern for the environment communicative approach to environment learning in school. The method used is a qualitative approach to the strategy of inductive-empirical, that...
Proceedings Article

Urgency of Civic Education in the Formation of Civic Competence of Students with Visual Impairment in SLB Fajar Harapan

Nurul Huda, Endang Danial
In the life of the nation and the state, much needed civic competence that must be owned by all citizens, not least also for those who have physical and intellectual limitations. Civic Education is a pedagogical effort to establish to be good citizen. In pedagogical efforts, civic education has the primary...
Proceedings Article

The Role of Ombudsman to Encourage The Citizens’ Participation in Public Service Supervision through Ombudsman Network

Aulia Sholichah Iman Nur Chotimah, Idrus Affandi
Citizens certainly have rights and obligations; one form of citizens' rights is obtaining good public services. In public service, most of the citizens do not understand that there is a right of the citizens to complain or to give feedback about the service received if the implementer and the organizer...
Proceedings Article

History of Local Wisdom of Ikan Larangan Lubuak Landua as Environmental Conservations

Misbahul Janatti
Every local wisdom in a society has a history, where local wisdom is still upheld by the adherents who passed down from generation to generation. Ikan larangan is one of local wisdom where river is protected through according to local custom. Ikan larangan is used to protect fish that are around the...
Proceedings Article

Reflective Core Values of Sundanese Life: An Integration Inculcates the Value of Delays in the Environment of Pasundan University

Asep Sjamsulbachri, Deni Zein Tarsidi
The reality of Indonesia that has a diversity of ethnic cultures and cultures and different religions, one of the second largest ethnics is Sundanese which certainly has a unique value of civilization but still sticking in the corridors of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. This research...
Proceedings Article

Prevention of Corruption through Anti-Corruption Education

Arnie Fajar, Chairul Muriman
Corruption has become a commodity of public discussion and has become a social epidemic that infects the working mechanisms of bureaucrats and the political and social life of Indonesian society. Various efforts have been made through the rules of legislation. Combating corruption can also be done through...
Proceedings Article

Hospitality Character Education: A Study of Character Education in the Study Program of Pastry Management of the Bandung Tourism College

Teddy Chandra, Sofyan Sauri, Ace Suryadi
This study aims to examine the Hospitality Character Education the Bandung Institute of Tourism (STPB –Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Bandung). This qualitative research employed naturalistic case study. The data collection covered techniques of interview, observation, and documentation study. The subject...
Proceedings Article

Strengthening the Political Ethics of Pancasila in Making Good Governance

Edi Kusnadi, Eneng Martini, Mahmud Mahmud
Whether or not realized the realities of political praxis that leads to the dimension and space that seemed to be free value (value free), putting aside ethics / moral, so far from the practice of politics in accordance with the values of the philosophy of the Indonesian nation itself, this indicates...
Proceedings Article

Implementation E-Tilang in Bandung to Increase Awareness of Cross as Moral Law Passed Citizenship (Civic Virtue)

Ghina Aisyah, Prayoga Bestari
This research is motivated by the problems associated with legal awareness because a lot of people who commit traffic offenses which raises the number of highway accidents, The lack of public awareness in complying with and implementing legislation of traffic, making the rate of accidents in the city...
Proceedings Article

Actualization of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a Form of Civic Responsibility Case Study of “Decofresh Warnai Jodipan” Program

Weni Wahyu Widyastuti, Idrus Affandi
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is one form of civic responsibility that is expected to be one of the pillars of sustainable development program. In general, this study aims to explore and analyze the responsibilities of citizenship by companies through CSR funds. This study is based on the main...
Proceedings Article

Development of Student Awareness through Student Learning Model Jurisprudential in Citizenship Education

T Heru Nurgiansah, Suwarma Al Muchtar
Education should be able to provide experience and experience to improve the quality of learning for the achievement of National Education. Improving the quality of education is very important to produce students into a generation of smart and skilled in dealing with challenges in a changing global life....
Proceedings Article

Social Engineering of a Civic Virtue and Local Wisdom Values : A Model to Character Education in Higher Education

Nurul Zuriah, Hari Sunaryo
The development of the nation’s character is very important in Indonesian. The general objective of the research is to construct and develop a civic virtue and local wisdom-based character education program model in higher education. The research was conducted in three universities: UMM, UNS, and UPI....
Proceedings Article

Role of Civic Education Teachers in Shaping the Character of Environmental Awareness of Learners

Lili Sukarliana, Deni Zein Tarsidi, Ina Kumalasari, Delila Kania
This research generally aims to know how far the role of Civic Education Teacher in shaping the character of environmental awareness of learners at SMA (High School) Sumatra 40 Bandung. The method used in this research is descriptive method with qualitative approach. Qualitative research with descriptive...
Proceedings Article

Contributions of Sasi to Sustainable Living of Saparua Indigenous Community, Indonesia

Jenny Koce Matitaputty, Helius Syamsuddin, Enok Maryani, Mohammad Ali
This study is aimed to find out the problems on how Sasi supports sustainable living in Saparua indigenous community, consisting of fifteen villages spread into two sub districts, i.e. Saparua and East Saparua. This research uses ethnographic approach. Data were taken using observation, interview, and...
Proceedings Article

Traditional Boy-Boyan Games to Improve Civic Competence of Students

Sari Rejeki Utami, Disman Disman, Sapriya Sapriya
The purpose of this paper is explaining the conceptual framework of traditional boy-boyan games which is a traditional game from West Java, as a game in the student's civic competence study in an elementary school. This paper shown the way about traditional boy-boyan games affected into civic knowledge,...
Proceedings Article

Government Efforts to Raise Awareness of Palembang City Residents to the Culture of Participation

Heni Widia Nengsi, Karim Suryadi
This research is important to do because considering at the present time, the participation rate of citizens in the city of Palembang is quite low. This is evidenced by the decline in the level of citizen participation in the elections in 2013. Therefore, this study is deemed necessary to do because...
Proceedings Article

Improve the Competence of Citizenship through Peace Education for Victims of the Aceh Conflict

Dhian Mutia, Sapriya Sapriya, Muhammad Halimi
Peace education is an ongoing activity or process for creating peace in society, in the sense of peace should go in and cut the chain to the efforts of teaching, such as negotiation and mediation skills and educational values of peace that includes respect for human rights and so on, so it will bring...
Proceedings Article

Reconstruction of Character Education Model in Higher Education through Project Netizen I Love Products Indonesian

Nurul Zuriah, Mohammad Syaifuddin, Marhan Taufik
National character education has a strategic role in national development. To fulfill this required a grand design and development of character education model as part of efforts to build the character of the nation. This article contains the results of higher education research "Reconstruction of a...
Proceedings Article

Development of The Abandoned Children in Building The Nation Character in Orphanages Ulul Azmi

Sandi Setiawan
Children are the successors of generations of a nation is generally abandoned children, especially orphans or orphans, in general, they live in the orphanage and live under the care of the orphanage. For abandoned children not just get the protection and fulfill basic needs, but need to get the assurance...
Proceedings Article

The Influence of Model of Civic Education Practicum Based on Integrated Learning to Strengthening Student Character

Rahmat Rahmat
Activity of learning implementation is the core of education which is of course very important to be studied and developed. In line with the growth of progressive education that emphasizes that the importance of education as a means of "progress" or the liberation of learners demand changes in the learning...
Proceedings Article

Multicultural Education: Between Freedom and Tolerance

Neiny Ratmaningsih, Aim Abdulkarim, Dina Siti Logayah, Ratna Fitria
The Indonesian nation is a pluralistic nation of different tribes, races, languages, religions, customs and cultures. This nation's pluralism can be seen as a gift as well as a great challenge for the Indonesian people to have a very large tolerance. Multicultural learning is present in education and...
Proceedings Article

The Teachers’ Competence in the Implementation of Physical Education Learning Program in Elementary Schools of Sawang South Aceh

Dadi Dartija, Sugiharto Sugiharto, Tandiyo Rahayu, Sulaiman Sulaiman
Teachers are not only required to have knowledge and mastery of teaching materials, but also have the ability to perform administrative tasks related to learning activities. This study aimed to analyze the teachers’ competence in the implementation of learning Physical Education in Elementary Schools...
Proceedings Article

Local wisdom of Bali as a foundation to strengthen the nation's character building

I Wayan Kertih
The practice of our character education in schools generally was just only based on the teaching of subject matters. The consequence was that the students were able to understand the subjects but their behaviors were still far from good conducts. That is why teachers of SMPN 1 Singaraja practice some...
Proceedings Article

Strengthening Citizenship Socio-Cultural Movement in the Environmental Field Through Lorong Garden Program in Makassar

Suriaman Suriaman, Dasim Budimansyah
This study aims to provide an overview of the implications of approaches and strategies as an effort to strengthen the awareness and concern for the environment as a citizenship socio-cultural movement through a lorong garden program. The research was conducted in three sub-districts in Makassar City....
Proceedings Article

The Impact of Scout Couching on the Change of Students’ Behaviour in Muda Senior High Vocational School Aceh Tamiang

Syamsulrizal Syamsulrizal, Amiruddin Amiruddin
Scouts are one of the elements of education in the world, in Indonesia as well. Scouting activities are always in demand at the elementary level, junior high school, senior high school, and college level. It hopes that through scouting activities will be born noble nation, responsible, disciplined and...
Proceedings Article

Social Engineering Design for Food Security Study on Apple Farming in Kota Batu, East Java

Drajat Tri Kartono, Atik Catur Budi
The aim of this research was to explore the problem of apple farmers sustainability for food security and to test the design of social engineering to strengthen the food security of Apple’s farmer in Malang. Kartono’s Identity theory is being used in this research, which stated that identity is always...