Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Cardiovascular Diseases (ICCvD 2021)

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53 articles
Proceedings Article

Peer-Review Statements

Heri Nurdiyanto, Isnatin Miladiyah, Nur Aisyah Jamil
Proceedings Article

The Effect of Diabetes Mellitus’s Duration on Platelet Count and Mean Platelet Volume’s Rat Stroke Model

Nabila Nabila, Rahma Yuantari, Ety Sari Handayani
Hiperglikemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have an impact on increasing the coagulation activity of the human homeostatic system. DM is a comorbidity of stroke. An increase of Platelet Count (PC) and Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is useful for assessing the prognosis and severity of ischemic stroke....
Proceedings Article

Cardiovascular Side Effects of Neuraminidase Inhibitors: A Review

Salsabila Zannuba Kurniawan, Riana Rahmawati, Fathiyatul Mudzkiroh, Muhammad Ariq Naufal Arofiq, Raden Muhammad Bagus Muliawan
Neuraminidase inhibitors are antiviral drugs prescribed especially for influenza types A and B. They inhibit the release of the viral neuraminidase protein, which facilitates viral release from the infected cell to the other host’s cells. There has been an increasing use of these drugs during the COVID-19...
Proceedings Article

How Does Metformin Work in the Treatment of Obesity? A Review

Muhammad Salman Shalahuddin, Riana Rahmawati
The rising prevalence of obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Because it can induce weight loss, metformin, a long-used drug for treating diabetes, is used as an off-label medication for the treatment of obesity. However, the mechanism underlying this effect...
Proceedings Article

Post Covid with Pleural Effusion: A Case Report

Ana Fauziyati, Bagus Andi Pramono, Untung Widodo
The Covid-19 pandemic has lasted for 1,5 years. There are many patients who suffered from many conditions or symptoms post Covid-19. In this report, we share our experience of caring for a post Covid-19 who suffered from worsening symptoms of breathlessness. Clinicians should be aware of post Covid-19...
Proceedings Article

Correlation Between Hypertension and Mortality of Covid-19 Patient at Dr. Soehadi Prijonegoro Hospital

Muhammad Ulil Albab, Ana Fauziyati, Erlina Marfianti, Lulus Budiarto, Nurul Aini
Covid-19 pandemic has been spreading throughout the world for almost 2 years. Hypertension was one of the most common comorbidities among Covid-19 patients. We conducted this study to investigate the correlation between hypertension and mortality in Covid-19 patients. We collected 159 medical records...
Proceedings Article

The Current Update on the Efficacy of Telmisartan in Patients with Hypertension: A Systematic Review

Angiesta Pinakesty, Rada Citra Saputra, Yuditya Anggraeni, Iin Novita Nurhidayati Mahmuda
Hypertension is a chronic condition which is often found worldwide and becomes a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Initial antihypertensive therapy with Angiotensin Receptor Blocker can be used for patients who have intolerance to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, such as telmisartan....
Proceedings Article

Challenges in Management of Pediatric Rheumatic Heart Disease in Indonesia: A Narrative Review

Emi Azmi Choironi, Soeroyo Machfudz, Mohammad Bherbudi Wicaksono
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is heart valve(s) damage as a long-term complication of Acute Rheumatic Fever (ARF). The ARF is preventable and the global mortality of RHD has significantly decreased due to the treatment advances. However, with the increase of patients’ survival rate, it causes more children...
Proceedings Article

Exposure to Public Service Advertisements #suaratanparokok: A Sociodemographic Analysis

Rizanna Rosemary, Novi Susilawati, Sari Rahmani, Nur Anisah
The negative impact of cigarettes is on the health and socio-economic of individuals and the community. Cigarette advertising in mass media contributes to an increase in smoking behaviour. The high number of cigarette consumption in the community raises concerns about the low level of public awareness...
Proceedings Article

Night Eating Syndrome and Palatable Eating Motives Among Medical Students

Nur Aini Djunet
One of the night eating syndromes (NES) characters is night-time overeating. People with NES might have no control over the amount and kind of food. This could lead to excessive energy intake, hence causes overweight and obesity. We wanted to determine the prevalence of NES and association of NES with...
Proceedings Article

Perception of Benefits and Barriers of Hypertension Prevention Behavior Through Audiovisual Health Education on Hypertension in Adolescents

Ratna Indriawati, Fadhil Abdillah
Hypertension or increased blood pressure is often referred to as the silent killer since it usually does not show significant signs and symptoms. Most sufferers do not realize that they suffer from hypertension. Based on Riskesdas data in 2007, the prevalence of hypertension in the population aged 18 years...
Proceedings Article

Profile of Potassium Serum in Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

Linda Rosita, Mahdea Kasyiva
Potassium level is closely related to the prognosis in several phases of a disease, especially in cardiovascular disease. Severe hypokalemia causes arrhythmia leading to cardiac arrest. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor potassium levels in patients with cardiovascular disease. This study aims to...
Proceedings Article

Propolis Increases Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex of Rat Stress Model

Kuswati Kuswati, Ety Sari Handayani, Zainuri Sabta Nugraha
Stress causes an increase in glucocorticoid hormones and glutamat release in the central nervous system. This condition can increase calcium influx in the neuron, mitochondrial membrane permeability and triggers apoptosis, thereby reducing the number of neurons. In the prefrontal cortex, stress exposure...
Proceedings Article

The Correlation Between Cardiometabolic Risks and High-Sensitivity C Reactive Protein (Hs-CRP) Levels in Serum Among Young Adults with Overweight and Obesity

Erlina Marfianti, Eko Andriyanto
Introduction: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults is increasing worldwide, including in Indonesia. Previous studies have shown that obesity increases inflammatory factors and is closely related to the incidence of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Cardiometabolic risk factors...
Proceedings Article

Determinants of Elevated Blood Pressure Among Young Adults in Indonesia

Vita Widyasari, Okti Ratna Mafruhah
Based on the results of the RISKESDAS 2018, the prevalence of hypertension in people aged > 18 years has increased from 25.8% (2013) to 34.1% (2018). Several factors, especially modifiable factors, need to be further identified to prevent an increase in blood pressure in young adults. The objective...
Proceedings Article

Effects of Olive Oil Supplementation on Reducing the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Scoping Review

Erlina Marfianti, Eko Andriyanto
Background The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is increasing in Indonesia. Cardiovascular disease ranks first among the causes of mortality in the world. Controlling the risk of cardiovascular disease becomes an effort to prevent the disease incidence. Previous studies have shown that olive oil...
Proceedings Article

Long-Term Induction by Duck Egg Yolk Resulting in Increased Total Cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein, High Density Lipoprotein and Atherogenic Index in Experimental Animals

Muhammad Hanif Al As’ad Budiyanto, Dimas Agus Cholili, Diva Berliana Adhyaksa, Dwina Permatasari, Fathiyatul Mudzkiroh, Anindya Amanda Damayanti, Dwi Nur Ahsani
Induction by high-fat diet (HFD) is frequently performed for research on hypercholesterolemia in experimental animals. In general, HFD is obtained by combining various components, but only few studies have investigated the potential of each component to induce hypercholesterolemia in experimental animals....
Proceedings Article

Utilization of Integrated Building Post for Non-communicable Disease Patients in Ngrampal District, Sragen Regency, Central Java, Indonesia

Adela Widi Etania, Rizky Rizani, Yusa Muhammad Thoriq, Leny Purnamasari, Wahyu Cipto Utomo, Pradhana Satria Pinandhita, Nengah Adnyana Oka Manuaba, Sani Rachman Soleman
Integrated Building Post (Posbindu) is a health-community resource-based to tackle non-communicable diseases provided by the Ministry of Health, Republic Indonesia. Application this program focuses on diabetes and hypertension in the population. However, community utilization to come to the Posbindu...
Proceedings Article

Acute Limb Ischemia on Diabetic Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review

Achmad Bima Aryaputra, Hendry Purnasidha Bagaswoto, Taufiq Nugroho, Ana Fauziyati
It’s estimated that 236.62 million people aged 25 years and older had peripheral artery disease around the world. Diabetes was also highly linked to PAD. Most likely due to neuropathy, patients with both diabetes and PAD have a rapid progression of their PAD. We report the case of a 58 years old woman,...
Proceedings Article

Potential of Purple Corn Anthocyanin Extract as A Hypolipidemic Agent: An In-Silico Analysis

Isnatin Miladiyah, Satyo Nuryadi
Hyperlipidemia remains an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Some standard hypolipidemic drugs available in the market still do not meet expectations in lowering lipid levels. Investigation of alternative hypolipidemic agents continues to be...
Proceedings Article

ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction with Left Ventricle Thrombus: Case Report

Doharjo Manullang, Hadi Wijaya, Imran Soleh, Erwin Sukandi, Taufik Indrajaya
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) occurs when there is evidence of myocardial injury (an increase in cardiac troponin values) and clinical evidence of myocardial ischemia. Data from the Jakarta Acute Coronary Syndrome Registry states that in 2014 there were 3015 patients with acute coronary syndrome...
Proceedings Article

Total AV Block in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Yudhie Tanta, Ali Ghanie, Andika Okparasta, Taufik Indrajaya, Erwin Sukandi
Bradyarrhythmia can be a life-threatening condition that mandates quick and proper responses and acts from a clinician. Furthermore, bradyarrhythmia management should not stop only in increasing the patient heart rate, but also to find the etiologies that caused this condition. Etiologies of bradyarrhythmia...
Proceedings Article

The Effect of Community-Based Intervention on Controlling Blood Pressure for Hypertension Patient: A Systematic Review

Muhammad Luthfi Adnan, Miranti Dewi Pramaningtyas, Dini Islamiana
Hypertension is a significant risk factor for death caused by cardiovascular disease. Collaboration with the community through community-based intervention is one of the actions to reduce the incidence of hypertension. Although many community-based intervention studies have been carried out to treat...
Proceedings Article

Patient Sociodemographic Characteristics and Adherence to Hypertension Medication: A Survey in a Rural Village in Indonesia

Alma Natasya, Riana Rahmawati
Hypertension has become a major global health problem and is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular events that can be prevented and treated. Medication adherence is important in hypertension management and can be influenced by various factors, including those related to patients and...
Proceedings Article

Knowledge About Hypertension and Its Treatment Among Patients and Lay Health Workers in the Posyandu Lansia

Nida Zahrotun Nazihah, Riana Rahmawati
The size of the elderly population continues to increase. In Indonesia, hypertension often occurs in the elderly. Knowledge about hypertension plays a vital role in hypertension control. Posyandu lansia (Integrated Health Service Post for the Elderly) is a community program involving the active participation...
Proceedings Article

The Effects of Subtotal Nephrectomy Method on Urea and Creatinine Serum in Hypertension Animal Model

Ernadita Budiastuti, Miranti Dewi Pramaningtyas
Chronic kidney failure is a disease that causes a decrease in kidney function in cleaning the blood of toxic materials, which causes accumulation of metabolic waste in the blood. Renal failure can cause severe azotemia and uremia. Subtotal nephrectomy is a method to induce hypertension and renal failure....
Proceedings Article

A Rare Case Report: Waardenburg Syndrome

Mita Rahma, Nabila Nabila, Veby Novri Yendri
Hearing loss is one of the most common congenital disorders. Hearing loss in early childhood will impair speech and language development. Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by sensorineural deafness associated with pigmentary anomalies and various defects on neural crest...
Proceedings Article

Correlation Between Lipid Profile and Disease Severity in Psoriasis Patients of Dr. Sudirman Kebumen District Hospital Central Java Indonesia

Rosmelia, Evy Sulistyoningrum, Antonius Wibowo, Lamya Muthia Nabila, Bedry Qintha, Faris Ali Fauzi, Dina Esti Utami
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by skin inflammation, epidermal hyperplasia, increased risk of arthritis, cardiovascular morbidity, and psychosocial challenges. Previous studies revealed the association of psoriasis with cardiometabolic diseases, in which dyslipidemia is a common...
Proceedings Article

Effectiveness of Community Activities Restriction Enforcement Program in Handling COVID 19 Pandemic in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia

Brain Novi Andri, Gea Sonia Amanda, Faris Ali Fauzi, Karmila Intansari, Endah Sri Puji Hastuti, Sani Rachman Soleman
Since the case, COVID 19 struck Indonesia on March 1st 2020. Some provincial governments have decided on micro policies based on national decisions, such as Community Activities Restriction Enforcement (PPKM). The aim of this study compared incidence COVID 19 in every regency in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta...
Proceedings Article

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Integrated Health Service Post for the Elderly Services

Mellody Yudhashinta Putri Cahyono, Riana Rahmawati
The ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic since March 2020 has increased the risk of morbidity and mortality in elderly people. The Integrated Health Service Post for the Elderly (IHSP-Elderly, Posyandu lansia) is a community-based program that provides large-group outdoor activities for the elderly. This...
Proceedings Article

Increased D-Dimer in Covid-19 Patients: Article Review

Farida Juliantina Rachmawaty, Reza Ishak Estiko, Rana Aulia Farah Kamila
COVID-19, which was first discovered in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has infected more than 200 countries. The virus that causes it is the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 or better known as SARS-CoV-2. Symptoms in infected individuals vary widely from asymptomatic to severe ones. Individuals...
Proceedings Article

Stroke Prevention with Anticoagulant in Cardiovascular Problem: Focus in Atrial Fibrillation

Ismail Setyopranoto, Punik Mumpuni Wijayanti, Utami
Cardiovascular problems such as atrial fibrillation is a serious and growing health problem in the global community. The presence of atrial fibrillation increases the risk of stroke, which in turn has its own problems and impact. Data have shown that the use of warfarin reduces the risk of stroke in...
Proceedings Article

The Potential of Nanoliposome-Encapsulated PCSK9 Vaccine for Active Immunization Against Atherosclerosis: A Review

Anindya Amanda Damayanti, Riana Rahmawati, Amany Taqiyyah Wardhani, Raisa Kamila Putri, Zavia Putri Salsabila
Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by lipoprotein deposition in the intima in arteries, is often diagnosed late. This fact has triggered research into immunization strategies for preventing the disease. This review discusses recent studies of immunization using proprotein convertase...
Proceedings Article

SGOT Levels in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients with Mayor Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE)

Iis Siti Aisah, Rahma Yuantari, Linda Rosita
SGOT is one of the most widely available biomarkers of myocardial infarction in various health care facilities in Indonesia. In the clinical course of acute myocardial infarction, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) may occur which include death, CHF, stroke, arrhythmia, and cardiogenic shock....
Proceedings Article

Secundum Atrial Septal Defect Severe Pulmonary Hypertension in Pregnancy: A Case Report

Welly Oktaviandani, Nuswil Bernolian, Imran Soleh, Andi Wahyudi, Ahmat Umar, Ali Ghanie, Fredi Heru Irwanto, Erwin Sukandi, Taufik Indrajaya
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is the most common form of congenital heart disease. Left-to-right shunting leads to right ventricular (RV) volume overload with excessive pulmonary blood flow. In the absence of pulmonary hypertension, pregnancy is generally well tolerated in the setting of an ASD. This case...
Proceedings Article

Plasmodium Vivax Malaria and Cardiac Complication

Fitria Siwi Nur Rochmah, Siti Istianah
Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) is known as a benign pattern of malaria. In recent years, Plasmodium vivax can also cause severe malaria infection that contributes to various manifestations in human organs. Cardiac complications associated with P. vivax malaria are rarely seen, but have recently been reported....
Proceedings Article

The Impact of Anxiety and Sleep Disturbances During COVID-19 Pandemic on Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures in a Rural Community

Rina Juwita, Erlina Marfianti, Ana Fauziyati
The COVID-19 pandemic, which has occurred since last year, has impacted all aspects of life, including health, in particular the condition of blood pressure. Many factors affect blood pressure during this pandemic, and hypertension is caused by many conditions. The pandemic has also affected the patterns...
Proceedings Article

The Potential of Black Cumin SNEDDS (Self-nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System) on Total Cholesterol Level of Hypercholesterolemic Model Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

Annisa Sofiana, Rizki Fajar Utami
Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This condition is marked by the increasing total cholesterol level higher than 200 mg/dL. Black cumin is one of the herbal plants which has the potential to be an antihyperlipidemic agent. Black cumin used in this research is...
Proceedings Article

The Increase of Student Obesity Rates During Online Learning in Medical Students

Nur Aini Djunet
Obesity could increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and now it is the first comorbid for COVID-19. It occurs chronically because of the positive energy balance. Body mass index (BMI) is related to the amount of fat. This index can predict how the burden of obesity might affect everyone in the...
Proceedings Article

Type 2 Cardiorenal Syndrome in Heart Failure with NSTEMI: A Case Report of 10 Months Follow Up

Achmad Bima Aryaputra, Dewi Hapsari Suprobo, Erlina Marfianti
Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a disorder of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other. Chronic abnormality in cardiac function leading to kidney injury or dysfunction was a typical characteristic of CRS type 2. Renal dysfunction...
Proceedings Article

Left Atrial Myxoma with Ischemic Stroke Complications: A Case Report

Muhammad Mukti, Susilawati, Fredi Heru Irwanto, Ahmat Umar, Bermansyah, Pinto Desti R, Erwin Sukandi, Ali Ghanie, Taufik Indrajaya
Cardiac myxoma is the most frequent primary tumor of the heart, considered a benign, slowly proliferating neoplasm. The incidence of cardiac myxoma is low, with approximately 0.5–1 cases per 1,000,000 individuals per year. Cardiac myxoma can be present at any age but most often in 30–60 years old, with...
Proceedings Article

Potential Combination of Nigella sativa and Allium sativum as a Modality of Herbal Therapy in Dyslipidemia Cases: A Literature Review

Muhammad Hanif Al As’ad Budiyanto, Rizki Fajar Utami
Dyslipidemia is a condition of the lipid profile in the blood at an abnormal level. Based on the 2013 Riskesdas, about 35.9% of the Indonesian population aged >14 years experienced dyslipidemia. Black cumin is an herbal plant that through its antioxidant activity can cure diseases such as dyslipidemia....
Proceedings Article

The Transmission Patterns of COVID-19 in the Academic Community: An Epidemiological Study

Pantes Irsa Mahendriyansa Putra, Dimas Adjie Yuda Mahendra, Iin Novita Nurhidayati Mahmuda
The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing problem in the world. The etiology of this disease is a group of coronaviruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS CoV). This virus is still mutating and producing new variants that have the characteristics...
Proceedings Article

Echocardiography Parameter-Left Ventricle Dimensions Profile on Congestive Heart Failure with or Without Hypertension and Old Myocardial Infarction

Muhamad Fahrurozi Asssidik, Tiara Ramadhani, Nanda Nurkusumasari
Heart failure (HF) is a global pandemic that affects at least 26 million people worldwide and its prevalence continues to increase. Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome caused by structural and functional defects in the myocardium resulting in impaired ventricular filling or blood ejection. Echocardiography...
Proceedings Article

Bayesian Approach to Comparing the Left Ventricular Volume in Myocardial Infarction and in Normal Cases

Aditya Tri Hernowo
Post-contrast delayed-enhancement MRI helps to show the extent of myocardial infarction (MI), as well as allowing the morphometric analysis of the heart structure, e.g., the left ventricular volume (LVV). Here the author showed how Bayesian implementation of statistical inference can benefit investigators...
Proceedings Article

Rastelli Procedure in Tetralogy of Fallot Patient with Anomalous Coronary Artery: A Case Report

Achmad Aulia Rachman, Heroe Soebroto, Arief Rakhman Hakim, Erdyanto Akbar
Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) is the most common form of cyanotic heart disease with a prevalence between 3,5 to 8%. Anomalous coronary artery is reported in 2–23% of ToF patient. Knowledge of the coronary anatomy prior to surgery was important to avoid injury to the vessel. In our case, ToF with the presence...
Proceedings Article

Imaging Technology of CT Scan 128 Slice for Pulmonary Hypertension, Mitral Stenosis, Emphysema, and Pleural Effusion: Case Report

Lilik Lestari
CT Scan 128 Slice can produce excellent images with good contrast and low radiation dose. Pulmonary hypertension CT Scan is able to imaging central arterial dilatation, while mitral stenosis on CT Scan 128 Slice imaging can be seen as well. The purpose of this paper is to report the diagnosis of patients...
Proceedings Article

Correlation Between Hypertension and Cognitive Impairment in Elderly in Jatinom, Klaten

Fery Luvita Sari, Agus Taufiqurrohman, Hasna Dian Farida
Background: The elderly is prone to health problems such as geriatric syndrome, including cognitive impairment. One of the causes of cognitive impairment is vascular disorders such as hypertension. Although hypertension is not a contagious disease, the percentage of incidence in Central Java Province...
Proceedings Article

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Efficacy as an Adjuvant Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Scoping Review

Hafidz Abdullah, Isnatin Miladiyah
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence worldwide and causing many threatening life complications. Various alternative therapies continue to be developed to control blood sugar level in T2DM, including from tradisional plants. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a traditional...
Proceedings Article

The Incidence and Prevalence of Stroke by Cause in Indonesia Based on Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

Vita Widyasari, Ferry Fadzlul Rahman, Valendryani Ningrum
Stroke is the world's second largest cause of mortality and the leading cause of disability. The report of incidence and prevalence of stroke by cause in Indonesia based on national population was limited. The objective of this study was to explore the incidence and prevalence of stroke and cause...
Proceedings Article

Factors Related to Electrocardiogram Abnormality in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Ni Made Elva Mayasari, Ahmad Ghiffari, Ahmad Restu Iman, Rifa Salsabiila
One of the most common causes of mortality in patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is cardiovascular disease. Electrocardiography (ECG) is considered as a screening technique for cardiovascular disease, particularly in individuals who have hypertension or are suspected of having cardiovascular disease....
Proceedings Article

Physical Compatibility of Norepinephrine-Dobutamine with Common Medication in Critical Care: Visual and Microscopy Evaluation

Suci Hanifah
Intravenous (IV) incompatibility is one of the obstacles in achieving the intended therapeutic goals. Norepinephrine-dobutamine is common inotropes that often meet with other injections and somehow cause incompatibility risk. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the compatibility of norepinephrine-dobutamine...
Proceedings Article

The Effects of Kefir and Jicama Synbiotic Administration on White Rat Serum Cortisol Levels After Subtotal Nephrectomy

Miranti Dewi Pramaningtyas, Rokhima Lusiantari, Titis Nurmasitoh, Ernadita Budiastuti, Qudsia Umaira Khan, Rafik Prabowo, Mohammad Alvian Subhakti, Hana Afifah Firdaus, Bagastyo Afif Prabowo, Chairun Nisa’ Nur’aini, Silvi Rahmawati, Muhammad Hanif Al As’ad Budiyanto, Clarinta Belva Sabina, Salama Suci Nurani, Alzena Zada Nur Safira
Changes in the kidneys can lead to increased blood pressure, which can be followed by an increase in cortisol levels. Subtotal nephrectomy is one of the methods to provide animal models of hypertension. The combination of kefir milk and jicama as a synbiotic drink is expected to maintain cortisol under...