Proceedings of the Rocscience International Conference (RIC 2023)

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82 articles
Proceedings Article

Peer-Review Statements

Reginald E. Hammah, Sina Javankhoshdel, Thamer Yacoub, Alireza Azami, Alison McQuillan
Proceedings Article

Assessment of Pillar and Interburden Stability in Ultra-Close Multiple-Seam Mining Using Finite Element Modeling

S. E. Phillipson
Our primary evaluation tool for coal pillar designs is the Analysis of Coal Pillar Stability (ACPS) program, which is based on an empirical database of case histories. We apply the Rocscience RS2 two-dimensional finite-element modeling program to ultra-close multiple-seam scenarios to enhance existing...
Proceedings Article

Back Analysis of Narrow Vein Open Stope Stability and Verification Using Kinematic and Empirical Methods

David Saiang
High walls of open stopes in underground stoping mines can be considered to behave in a similar manner to open pit slopes if stability is largely controlled by geological structures. With this assumption the kinematic method of analyses can be used to assess the stability of the footwall, hangingwall,...
Proceedings Article

Analysis of Cave System in Weak Sandstone Using RS2

Simon Ferley, Ian Williams
The Rocscience finite element program RS2 [1] has been used for a preliminary study to examine the stability of shallow caves in weak sandstone rock beneath a proposed development site in the UK. Focusing on the influence of in-situ horizontal earth pressures, this paper presents one of several models...
Proceedings Article

Geotechnical Risk and Risk Mitigation in Deep Underground Mines in Hard, Brittle Rock

W. F. Bawden
The paper reviews the challenges, and in some cases, extreme risks commonly encountered when mining at great depth in hard, brittle rock masses. For context, mining at great depth is assumed to imply mining at depths in excess of 1.0 to 1.5 km below ground surface. The paper focuses primarily on rock...
Proceedings Article

Add Water and Get Problems, to Solve: Geotechnical Problems with Steep Rock Faces in Soft Sandstone and Limestone Varieties, Including the Effects of Water

Ulf Köhler, J. Engelhardt
For stabilisation works of steep rock faces, which are often created as cuttings for roads, the latent processes of weathering (such as frost, gravity and water…), must be considered, in addition to fracturing and stratification, to a greater extent for “soft” rocks than in the case of hard rocks. ...
Proceedings Article

Zoning of Soil Media by Raster Scan Algorithms for Two-Dimensional Steady State Flow

Ahmed Al-Mufty
A method for representation of soil media and boundary conditions in a cross section of ground layers is presented. The method is based on algorithms used in computer graphics, called raster scan algorithms, RSA. The method may be applied to various soil mechanics solutions, especially slope stability...
Proceedings Article

Probabilistic Analysis of an Embankment Under Extreme Rainfall Events Considering Spatial Variability of Soil Strength Parameters

Leila Baninajarian, Sina Javankhoshdel, Rashid Bashir
Studies have shown that the stability of embankment slopes are influenced significantly by extreme rainfall events. The results of previous studies have also indicated that embankments built with fine materials such as silt are more susceptible to extreme rainfall events than those built with coarse...
Proceedings Article

2013 Landslide Failure Mechanism and Back Analysis of Tijuana-Ensenada Scenic Highway

Carlos Chávez, Rafael Soto, J. Eleazar Arreygue
The Tijuana-Ensenada highway crosses the “Salsipuedes Bay”. This zone has been subject to numerous landslides due mainly to geological conditions. The last great landslide occurred on 28 December 2013. The principal causes that triggered the landslide were: the shale weathering, the groundwater, and...
Proceedings Article

Regional-Scale Landslide Hazard Analysis in Sensitive Clays Using an Integrated Approach

Ali Saeidi, Blanche Richer, Rama Vara Prasad Chavali, Maxime Boivin, Alain Rouleau
The Saguenay region in Quebec is largely covered by sensitive marine clays that are highly susceptible to large retrogressive landslides. This work addresses the development of a methodology to forecast slope failure and zonation of landslides in sensitive clays. This is demonstrated by applying an integrated...
Proceedings Article

Slope Stability Analysis for Optimisation of Overburden Dump Capacity in Opencast Coal Mines

Sravan Kumar Gara, Nirbhay Narayan Singh, Randip Singh, K. S. Rao
Slope stability study of Over Burden (OB) dump needs to be carried out for maintaining them at the steepest possible angle without any danger from the stability point of view. One of the most important input parameters for stability analysis is the shear strength i.e., cohesion and angle of internal...
Proceedings Article

Infrastructure Management Based on Vulnerability to Landslides

Alex Cuéllar Díaz
This study analyzed the vulnerability of the assets of an oil field exposed to landslides, based on the potential loss of value due to damage to people, the environment, property and/or business, with the objective of making visible, prioritizing, planning, and executing actions to address risk areas,...
Proceedings Article

Landslide Disaster Risk Reduction Through Slope Stabilization: A Case Study of eThekwini, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa

S. T. Mudenge, G. Fourie, L. Sobhee-Beetul, D. Kalumba
Landslides are a severe geological hazard which mainly occur when the forces which cause downward earth movement of a slope exceed the strength of the constituent materials. The main causes of landslides can be broadly categorized as hydrogeological, morphological and physical. The triggering mechanisms...
Proceedings Article

Continuum-Based Voronoi Tessellated Models for Capturing Unloading-Induced Brittle Damage in Hard Rocks

Fatemeh Amiri, Navid Bahrani
The continuum numerical program RS2 was used to generate a Voronoi Tessellated Model (VTM), consisting of blocks meshed into several triangular elements and block boundaries simulated using joint elements. The RS2-VTM was calibrated to the compressive and tensile strengths of undamaged Lac du Bonnet...
Proceedings Article

Rock Reinforcement Data for Analysis and Design

John Hadjigeorgiou
This paper discusses the challenges of selecting representative ground support data to investigate the influence of reinforcement in design of underground excavations in hard rock. This is presented with reference to a limit equilibrium rigid wedge analysis. The case is made that the use of “typical”...
Proceedings Article

Utilizing the Monte-Carlo Capability in RS2 for Machine-Learning Applications

Amichai Mitelman, Avshalom Ganz, Alon Urlainis
Due to the uncertainty that stems from the heterogeneous nature of geological materials, probabilistic tools have been incorporated into geotechnical practice. A notable example is the Monte Carlo analysis method that is available as a built-in feature in the program RS2 (Rocscience in Phase2 version...
Proceedings Article

Effects of Shear Wave Velocity and Thickness of Soil Layers on 1D Dynamic Response in the Saguenay Region, Quebec

ASM Fahad Hossain, Mohammad Salsabili, Ali Saeidi, Juliana Ruiz Suescun, Miroslav Nastev
Before reaching the ground surface, the amplitude, duration and frequency content of the vertically propagating seismic waves can be modified by the local stratigraphy and soil physical properties. In this study, we evaluate the impacts of the soil shear wave velocity (Vs) and thickness (H) on the seismic...
Proceedings Article

Thermal Design of Small Modular Reactors in Northern Regions

Mohammadhossein Afsharipour, Pooneh Maghoul, Najib Bouaanani, Richard Boudreault
Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) are increasingly recognized as safer and more flexible alternatives to conventional nuclear power plants in today’s industry. Their safety and flexibility, coupled with their lower time and capital investment requirements, make SMRs an ideal choice for clean energy in Canada’s...
Proceedings Article

A Conceptual Assessment of Dynamic Analysis in RS3

A. Pirayehgar, J. Carvalho, Y. Abolfazlzadeh, S. Moallemi, S. Javankhoshdel
Dynamic analysis is an important tool for assessing and managing the risks associated with seismic events. Seismic events result from ground ruptures. The magnitude of a seismic event depends on the size of the rupture and the stress drop, which respectively translates to displacement and released energy...
Proceedings Article

Utilizing Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Ground-Based Radar Data to Predict Time to Failure and to Calibrate Numerical Models on an Opencast Coal Mine

Jacques Strydom, Ohveshlan Pillay
Accurate time failure predictions and improved geotechnical certainty in an opencast mine will lead to tremendous safety and economic benefits. This study utilizes interferometric synthetic aperture radar and ground-based radar data to conduct a back analysis on slope failures that have occurred in an...
Proceedings Article

On the Role of Air Flow in Air-Convection Embankments: Insights from Thermal Numerical Modeling

Ahmed Ibrahim, Mohamed A. Meguid
Utilizing crushed rocks in air convection embankments is one of the methods adopted to facilitate heat exchange between foundation soil and the atmosphere. The relatively large pore space provided by the air convection section allows for air to overall decrease the temperature of permafrost underneath...
Proceedings Article

An Analytical Method for the Calculation of the Shaft Resistance of Axially Loaded Piles in Cohesive-Frictional Soils

Lysandros Pantelidis
According to the current practice, the unit shaft resistance of piles based on ground parameters is calculated usually with the $$a$$-method or the $$\beta $$-method. And while the physics behind these methods is simple and adequate for calculating the shaft resistance of piles in clays and sands for...
Proceedings Article

An Analytical Method for Designing Embedded Retaining Walls

Lysandros Pantelidis
Intermediate earth pressures act on the wall when the latter has not moved enough so that the active or passive state to be reached. These pressures are of particular importance for designing embedded retaining walls; embedded walls are flexible structures and along their length different soil state...
Proceedings Article

Active and Passive Lateral Earth Pressure on Retaining Walls with Broken Sloped Backfill Using Finite Element Limit Analysis

Ali Shafiee, Alireza Eskandarinejad, Amir Hossein Shafiee
Retaining walls with broken sloped backfill (RWBSB) are popular in North America in transportation projects. AASHTO (AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Customary U.S. Units. American Associa-tion of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2020) suggests a limit equilibrium analysis to calculate...
Proceedings Article

Rock Mass Strength Analysis and Disturbance Factor Estimation of Heterogeneous Rock Masses for the Dam Foundation: A Case Study at Kanarwe River Basin, Kurdistan Region, NE-Iraq

Fahmy Osman Mohammed, Ghafor Ameen Hamasur, Diyari Ali Almanmi
Evaluating rock masses for dam foundations, especially heterogeneous rock (flysch), becomes imperative and requires accurate geomechanical classifications. The rocks at the Kanarwe River Basin (KRB), especially at a proposed dam site (Goma-Qazan near Khewata – Sura Qalat villages), mainly consist of...
Proceedings Article

The Conversion of Anisotropic Materials from 3D to 2D in Limit Equilibrium

Terence Ma, Brigid Cami, Sina Javankhoshdel, Brent Corkum
The consideration of anisotropic strength in limit equilibrium has become popular among practitioners in the field of slope stability. Rock masses exhibit failure planes in various directions which cannot be ignored in the analysis. The consideration of anisotropy in limit equilibrium by varying the...
Proceedings Article

Analysis of Slope Failure: A Case Study from the Pump House Cut Slope Wall of Lift Irrigation Scheme, Telangana State, India

A. K. Naithani, D. S. Rawat, J. Ramesham, Mahesh Babu Tera, G. Bramhaiah
During the excavation of pump house-II of Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation Scheme (KLIS) Link-II, sudden slope failure happened on the upstream wall from existing ground level +274.00 to +225.00 m level. In this paper the cause of slope failure at the upstream right-side wall of the pump house and support...
Proceedings Article

On the Creep Analysis of Rock Masses by Using a Viscoelastoplastic Model

A. A. Jameei, A. Azami, S. Moallemi, K. Dang, T. Yacoub
Creep in rock masses is typically described as the gradual deformation that occurs when loads are applied for long durations at varying temperatures. This process, which may result from chemical reactions in susceptible environments, leads to instabilities and catastrophic strength degradation in the...
Proceedings Article

Interaction of Tunneling and Rock Slope Stability, Case Study St. Michael Rail Ways Tunnel (Wachau Railway/Lower Austria)

Saadati. Ghader, Schneider-Muntau. Barbara, Sina Javankhoshdel, Michael Mett, Heiner Kontrus
This research focuses on the analysis of rock stability in the St. Michael Tunnel, part of the Wachau railway in Lower Austria. The study area includes the entire tunnel and the surrounding rock slopes with Para gneiss alternations and Schists. Initial surveys were conducted to assess the original ground...
Proceedings Article

Applying Logistic Regression Analysis in Modeling Settlement Analysis with Ground Improvement

Seok Hyeon Chai, Tara Stojimirovic, Thamer Yacoub
Settlement analysis plays an essential role in providing a safe measure for the stability of the foundation and other structural components. The settlement analysis with numerical methods such as Finite Element method (FEM), Finite Difference Method, or other sophisticated constitutive models are continuing...
Proceedings Article

Shear Behavior of 3D Printed Stochastic Rock Discontinuities

Amirhossein Medghalchi, Bing Q. Li
Discontinuities have a significant impact on the geomechanical behaviour of rock masses and corresponding implications across rock engineering applications. The design, construction, safety, and stability analysis of rock masses are all based on the measurement of mechanical characteristics. Unfortunately,...
Proceedings Article

Multi-stage Thermal Creep Characteristics of Frozen Tailings

Dana Amini, Pooneh Maghoul, Amade Pouya
The deformation of tailings dams due to creep has been identified as a significant threat to their stability and overall life-cycle performance. In northern regions, tailings dams constructed mostly on traditionally frozen foundations, are subject to hazards resulting from permafrost degradation due...
Proceedings Article

Future Challenges in Tunnel Stability Analysis Using Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

Saadati Ghader, Schneider-Muntau Barbara, Sina Javankhoshdel, Mett Michael, Kontrus Heiner
Entering the information age, we encounter a huge amount of data, and this big data requires automatic data analysis methods that provide machine learning and deep learning. Machine learning (ML) is a branch of artificial intelligence that is currently developing and evolving and is a very active field...
Proceedings Article

Detection and Attribution of Climate Non-Stationarity in Cold Regions Geotechnical Design Using Artificial Intelligence

Elham Kheradmand, Ali Fatolahzadeh Gheysari, Parisa Samadi, Sina Javankhoshdel, Terence Ma, Kien Dang, Dipanjan Basu, Pooneh Maghoul
As our climate changes (non-stationarity), we face new challenges in assessing hazard frequency and assessing the vulnerability of infrastructure to the effects of global warming, such as changing precipitation patterns and increasing ground surface temperature. The lack of appropriate incorporation...
Proceedings Article

Applications and Modeling of Geosynthetics in Highway Infrastructure

Lizeth Ardila Montilla, Cristina Schmidt, André Estêvão Silva, Carlos M. Rodriguez, Trevor Walker
Although there is already a significant and consolidated experience by the technical community responsible for highway infrastructure projects, which includes large and important projects implemented with different geosynthetic solutions, there are still gaps in knowledge that can be better answered....
Proceedings Article

Slope Stability Analysis Using 2 & 3-Dimensional Methods of Basal Reinforced Slopes

Carlos Rodriguez, July Jaramillo, Lizeth Ardila, Sina Javankhoshdel, Stephen Hughes
Multiple slopes varying from 25° to 30° were designed and constructed in different areas of a highway project in Northern Virginia. High modulus and high-strength geosynthetics were required to ensure the sliding stability of 11 m slopes up to. For some slopes, polyester geosynthetics with up to 1000...
Proceedings Article

Numerical Investigation of Reinforced Soil Segmental Walls Using Two-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis in RS2

Reza Jamshidi Chenari, Pooya Dastpak, Rita L. Sousa, Edna Lizeth Ardila, Carlos Rodriguez, Sina Javankhoshdel
The FEM software RS2’s efficiency in modelling an MSE wall was verified through numerical simulation of the significant structural components of a field-constructed MSE wall in Seattle, Washington. A 10.7-m high wall was simulated, and its performance was evaluated by plotting strain and load profiles...
Proceedings Article

Back Analysis of Support Force—A Case Study

Bijoy K. Halder, Kevin M. Erns
Subsurface investigation for County Road 90 in Athens County, Ohio, indicated presence of reddish brown non-durable claystone bedrock of the Pennsylvanian aged Monongahela Group. The slope failure is an approximately 90 ft long slope section affected by landslide activity. The ground movement is associated...
Proceedings Article

Searching for the 3D Critical Slip Surface in an Open Pit Mine Using Spline Surfaces

Terence Ma, Sina Javankhoshdel, Brigid Cami, Reginald E. Hammah, Brent Corkum
The use of software for 3D slope stability is becoming increasingly popular due to advances in computing technology. Though slip surfaces in slope stability are rarely circular in nature, many modern practitioners still rely on limit equilibrium results using spherical or ellipsoidal slip surfaces. Restricting...
Proceedings Article

3D Finite Element and Limit Equilibrium Modeling of the Initiation of Landslides

Rajib Dey, Sina Javankhoshdel, Amir Arsalan Jameei, Sina Moallemi
Large-scale failure of riverbank slopes containing sensitive clays can occur rapidly under undrained conditions. Field observations and numerical analyses indicate that forming a quasi-horizontal shear band can develop from the toe of the slopes and initiate a progressive type of failure. In this study,...
Proceedings Article

An Overview of Recent Advancement in the Three-Dimensional Limit Equilibrium Method and Its Implication on Slope Stability Analysis for Iron Ore Mining

Wensong Zhang, Jan Janse Rensburg
With rapidly advancing computational technologies and more accessible high-performance computing machines in the past decade, the three-dimensional limit equilibrium (3D LE) method has become increasingly popular in the assessment of open pit slope stabilities. Unlike the Finite Difference (FD) and Finite...
Proceedings Article

Investigation of Geometric and Smear Parameters in the Design of Prefabricated Vertical Drains in Manila Bay

Ian-Will D. Ibañez, Giancarlo P. Ventura
Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVDs) are geosynthetic drains that are used to shorten the horizontal drainage path and allow water to flow laterally to the nearest drain. Because of remolding during installation, a zone of smear around the drain is formed, reducing the coefficient of horizontal permeability,...
Proceedings Article

Predictions of Settlements of Pond Berms Over Mexico City Clays

Francisco A. Flores, Iván Zárate, Jenny Ramírez, Néstor O. Gordillo
This paper presents the long-term settlement predictions of up to 3.5-m tall, 33-km long berms around the perimeter of five water regulation ponds at the perimeter of Lake Nabor Carrillo. Settlements due to the construction of the perimeter berms were performed using Settle3. Three-dimensional numerical...
Proceedings Article

A Ground Improvement Case Study Using Soil Replacement or Stone Columns Using Settle3 and RS3

Seok Hyeon Chai, Luis Gonzalez, Sina Javankhoshdel
Stone Columns were first introduced approximately 60 years ago as a technique for improving both cohesive soils and silty sands. Its construction involves the partial replacement of unsuitable soils with a pattern of compacted vertical columns of stone. In the settlement analysis software, Settle3, a...
Proceedings Article

Evaluation of Full-Scale Pile Load Testing Using Osterberg Cell ® in till and Georgian Bay Shale in Southern Toronto

Darcy Hansen, Joe Carvalho, Paul Dittrich
A full scale, axial Pile Load Test (PLT) using an Osterberg Cell ® (O-Cell) assembly installed in a test shaft, and a lateral PLT using the same test shaft and a reaction shaft were carried out to inform caisson (drilled shaft) design for a project in Toronto near Lake Shore Blvd. Under supervision of...
Proceedings Article

Development of a Strategy Around the Placement and Design of Temporary Bridges Spanning Mining Scars on an Opencast Strip Mine in South Africa Using Sound Rock/Soil Mechanics Practices

Yogendran Arunachellan
The pursuit of operational targets such as tonnage and grade can often outpace the rehabilitation rate. This tends to leave large areas of mined-out strips (also known as scars) that must be traversed to ensure the hauling distance is shortened. Therefore, the resource must be efficiently extracted without...
Proceedings Article

Forecasting the Depth of Failure in Underground Development

G. Sweby, P. Brenchley, P. Novomodny, J. Player, A. Sacco
A back-analysis case study is presented whereby the depth-of-failure in the rockmass surrounding underground development was correlated with borehole camera measurements. The case study took place at the Golden Grove Underground Mine (29 Metals) at a depth of ~1150–1400 m with moderately complex geology....
Proceedings Article

Metaheuristic Optimization Model Selection for Forecasting Surface Settling Caused by Tunneling

Asad Askari, Hasan Askari
One of the riskiest aspects of excavating tunnels for infrastructure projects like subways and such is the possibility for surface set tlement, particularly in metropolitan areas. Therefore, it is crucial to predict maximum surface settlement (MSS) accurately to reduce the likeli hood of damage. Many...
Proceedings Article

Approaches for Estimating Slope Breakback and Stability Longevity for Closure of Large Open Pits

Trevor G. Carter, Loren J. Lorig, Erik Eberhardt, Phil J. H. Graaf
Currently, few guidelines exist for how a practitioner should tackle the quantitative assessment of long-term slope performance for open pit mine closure design. Material degradation, resulting from cumulative incremental time-dependent deterioration and propagation of episodic damaging events (e.g.,...
Proceedings Article

Slope Stability in Open Pits with Thin Weak Layers

Fredy A. Díaz-Durán
Open pit mining projects usually face particular situations while dealing with slope stability analysis. More than any other projects, mining projects build a considerable number of slopes, which are more likely to behave differently among them, due to the change in orientation in the open pit. One of...
Proceedings Article

Value Creation in an Open Cast Strip Mine Through Geotechnical Processes

N. Netshivhazwaulu, T. R. Stacey
Various geotechnical investigations are conducted to define rock mass properties which assist geotechnical engineers in understanding the level of variability within the rock mass and allow for uncertainty to be minimised during the design of rock slopes. Middelburg Mine Services previously experienced...
Proceedings Article

Stability Analysis of a Temperature-Dependent Jointed Rock Mass

S. Moallemi, M. Bazargan, K. Dang, A. Azami, M. Abouelhassan
Permafrost degradation is a critical factor to consider when examining the destabilization of rock slopes in cold regions. This study focuses on the numerical analysis of the Zugspitze summit-crest in Germany, utilizing a temperature-dependent mechanical model. Material properties and degradation parameters...
Proceedings Article

An Analytical Method for Designing Laterally Loaded Piles

Lysandros Pantelidis
There is no doubt that the problem of a laterally loaded pile is an earth pressure analysis problem, involving the flexural rigidity of the pile. During the lateral loading, the earth pressures along the pile may take any value between the state at-rest and the active or the passive state. The current...
Proceedings Article

RSPile Analysis of Two Osterberg Cell Load Tests on Post-Grouted and Conventionally Installed Caissons in Vaughan, Ontario

Michael Diez de Aux, Jason Crowder, John Westland
Three towers (35–57 storeys) are proposed in Vaughan, Ontario. The preferred foundation approach is bored concrete piles (caissons) bearing in soil at about 46 m depth, with Osterberg Cell (O-Cell) load testing to maximize design capacity. Several conventional O-Cell load tests have been designed and...
Proceedings Article

A Comparative Analysis of a Laterally Loaded Pile Group Using Different Software

Derek Egan, Ian Williams
This paper presents a comparative analysis of a laterally loaded pile group using the computer programs PIGLET, RSPile and RS3. To enable the construction of a new road by-pass, a 24-inch diameter watermain serving 10,000 residents needed to be diverted. The diversion alignment generated out of balance...
Proceedings Article

A Simplified Method of Incorporating Monitored Data for Settlement Prediction Using Bayesian Back Analysis Compared with Settle3

Merrick Jones, Shan Huang, Jinsong Huang
Simplification of the geotechnical model and soil parameters is common in engineering practice however review of the performance to verify and updated the prediction is seldom. However, oversimplification may not capture the appropriate conditions for reliable settlement prediction. Bayesian back analysis...
Proceedings Article

Foundation Design Alternatives for Residential Building Near Natural Slope

Alex Cuéllar Díaz
This study presents the global stability analysis of the slope developed in the design phase of the foundation of a 12-level building of the ALZATI Apartments project, allowing to select the alternative of foundation that presented the best structural behavior and the best distribution of stresses to...
Proceedings Article

Failure Mechanism and Behavior of Two-Tiered Bamboo Reinforced Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Wall Subjected to Isolated Footing Load

Jlxeondyke Drie L. Ifurung, Giancarlo P. Ventura, Matthew Travis M. Alcantara
Tiering of mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining walls have several advantages over its single-tier counterpart, specifically reducing tensile stresses experienced by lower reinforcements. Bamboo reinforcements were investigated to determine if it was a viable economic and sustainable alternative....
Proceedings Article

Stochastic Slope Stability Analysis: Exploring the Uncertainty of Input Motion

Pooneh Shah Malekpoor, Susana Lopez-Querol, Sina Javankhoshdel
Slope stability issues are widely studied by geoengineers due to the significant risk they pose to human safety and the economy. Slope failures can be especially perilous, particularly in earthquake-prone regions, where even statically stable slopes can be triggered by dynamic loads. The pseudo-static...
Proceedings Article

RFEM Analysis of a Subway Station Considering Conditional Random Field

Elahe Mohammadi, Sina Javankhoshdel, Nicholas Vlachopoulos, Reza Jamshidi Chenari
The concrete arch pre-support system (CAPS) is one of the construction methods of subway stations designed using deterministic soil strength parameters. A Finite Element Method (FEM) of analysis is used to calculate the design parameters, including the factor of safety and maximum displacement using...
Proceedings Article

Developing SPT-CPT Correlation Models Using Hierarchical Bayesian Approach

Sara Khoshnevisan, Laith Sadik
In geotechnical practice, engineers often perform only one type of in-situ testing. However, under some circumstances, there might be a need for different testing for additional analysis. Having a correlation model in such cases eliminates the need for performing additional testing and thus, saving time...
Proceedings Article

A Case Study of the Measurement of the Spatial Correlation Length of Soil Parameters Using SPT and CPT Field Tests Data

S. M. Asadollahi, A. Fakher, S. Javankhoshdel
The Hoor-Al-Azim wetland is situated in the southwest of Iran and the southeast of Iraq, in the Middle East. Various industrial projects have been implemented in this region, and major projects are planned for the future. Therefore, geotechnical investigation of this area is crucial to understand its...
Proceedings Article

A Practical Nonlinear Strength Criterion for Rock Masses and Other Geological Materials

S. D. Cylwik, J. R. Killian, P. F. Cicchini
Rock mass strength is a required input parameter for many types of analysis in both mining and civil engineering. This paper introduces a nonlinear formulation of the CNI method, an empirical rock mass strength criterion based on quantitative input parameters. Most of the input parameters to the CNI...
Proceedings Article

Does Rock Engineering Need to Quantify GSI?

Beverly Yang, Davide Elmo
Numbers form the basis of engineering; without them, we could not determine forces, stresses, and safety factors. In most engineering disciplines, the numbers used represent quantitative measurements; however, rock engineering is unique in that many of the numbers used are numerical descriptions of qualitative...
Proceedings Article

Application of Continuum-Based Voronoi Tessellated Models for Simulating Brittle Damage and Failure in Hard Rocks

Navid Bahrani, Yalin Li, Farzaneh Hamediazad, Soheil Sanipour, Fatemeh Amiri
Voronoi tessellations are commonly used in discontinuum numerical models to simulate the microstructure of brittle rocks. In this approach, the model domain is divided into several randomly generated polygonal blocks. Discontinuum-based Voronoi Tessellated Models (VTM) capture the brittle rock failure...
Proceedings Article

Elastoplastic Discretized Virtual Internal Bond Model and Its Application to Dynamic Fracture Simulation in Rock

Dina Kon, Alphonse Kakanda, Dave Mbako, Shu Jisen
Failure of a material is always accompanied by plastic deformation and fracturing processes. Continuum plastic mechanics can handle plastic deformation effectively when it employs a yield function and the flow rule. As a result of its inability to account for the microstructure of the material, the continuum...
Proceedings Article

Mechanical Stability of a Tailings Dam Incorporating Principles of Unsaturated Soil Mechanics

Juan Pablo Cerutti, Marcelo Esteban Zeballos
Tailings dams are an alternative for the final storage of waste produced by the metallurgical mining industry. Unlike water reservoir dams, tailings dams have the particularity of requiring a detailed analysis of the post-operation or closure phase. In this stage, the structure must be as safe as during...
Proceedings Article

Mitigating Geotechnical Challenges Associated with Marshland Restoration in the San Diego Bay

Sam Giannakos, Andrew Barrett, John Laplante, David Cannon
Coastal marshes provide many benefits to local communities, including increased habitat, coastal protection, and recreational use. The Otay River Estuary Restoration Project (ORERP) aims to restore disturbed marsh wetlands for the benefit of fish, birds, and other coastal species native to habitats at...
Proceedings Article

Internal and Global Analysis of a Gabion Wall Using 2D and 3D Limit Equilibrium Analysis: A Comparison of Multiple Methods

Gianluca Brocca, Marco Vicari, Sina Javankhoshdel, Terence Ma, Brigid Cami
Gabion walls are a type of retaining wall made up of steel baskets typically filled with rock. They have gained popularity in recent decades due to their strength and aesthetic. Multiple methods for performing gabion wall internal stability analysis exist in literature. This study will consider two different...
Proceedings Article

Creating a System for Storing, Processing and Presenting Geotechnical Information for Ghana

Nancy Anataba Kyorku Dzikunu-Bansah, Felix J. F. Ayeh
Site investigation is crucial to any civil engineering or land development project. The geotechnical information acquired through site investigations is essential for the safe and economical design of buildings and infrastructural works. The field and laboratory tests (critical components of site investigations)...
Proceedings Article

Anisotropic Strength Model for Stability Analysis on Metasedimentary Sandstone-Shale Rock Slope: A Case Study

Mohd Mustaqim Mohd-Nordin, Mohd Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mazlina Razali
The anisotropic geological setting has a predominant multi-orientation of weakness planes that are integrated with the matrix structure of major joint sets. The sedimentary bedding orientation and shear surface resistance significantly governed the plane’s deformation characteristics and, thus, the mode...
Proceedings Article

Pit Slope Design in Weak Rocks: Experience from Sukinda Chromite Valley, India

Jayeeta Dey, Sujit Roy, Abdul Matin
Sukinda chromite valley is the largest chromite deposit in India with six chromitite bands mined by several open pit mines. Host rock ultramafic sequence is weathered and altered to a thick profile of limonite that forms majority of the pit walls. The limonitic rockmass is massive, silt and clay rich...
Proceedings Article

Using a 3D Limiting Equilibrium Modelling Tool for Slope Stability in Weathered Rocks: A Case Study

Mustapha Seidu, Peter Andrews
Using three-dimensional limit equilibrium analysis to evaluate open pit slope stability has become popular in the mining industry. These tools allow geotechnical engineers to accurately input actual rock slope conditions and material strengths and obtain results that reflect slope behaviour and stability....
Proceedings Article

Considering Fragmentation and Variability of Rockfall and the Third Dimension in Rockfall Barrier Design

Manuel Eicher, Roberto Luis Fonseca, Helene Lanter
At the end of the 1980s, the design, testing and subsequent manufacture of steel rockfall protection barrier systems began around the world. To ensure that these barriers can effectively stop the dynamic impact of rockfall, several guidelines have been introduced worldwide since 2001. The level of knowledge...
Proceedings Article

A Framework for Back-Analysis of 3D Rockfall Trajectories

Arnold Y. Xie, Zhanyu Huang, Thamer Yacoub, Bing Q. Li
We define a novel normalized loss function to quantitatively evaluate the goodness-of-fit between simulated and measured rockfall trajectories using elapsed time and sampled rock positions. This loss function is optimized to back-analyze the coefficients of restitution Rn and Rt using a Monte-Carlo search...
Proceedings Article

On the Use of Dips and RocFall for Designing Structures in Highly Fractured Igneous Rocks in the Chilean Patagonia

Néstor René Espinoza Guillén, Jorge Andrés Arriagada Triana, Lorna Andrea González Martínez
The Carretera Austral, today Route 7 of Chile, is one of the most important roads in the Chilean Patagonia. The road is in a mountainous area with very steep slopes. Due to the challenges presented by the zone a geotechnical assessment is necessary to make improvements to the road. During the opening...
Proceedings Article

Coastal Cliffs Rockfall Analyses and Mitigation Measures Assessment Using RocFall3: A Case Study Along Shortland Esplanade in Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

Davide Ettore Guccione, Abigail Watman, Klaus Thoeni, Oliver Buzzi, Anna Giacomini
Rock slope instabilities affecting several coastal cliffs in Australia, such as rockfalls, block topples and wedge sliding failures, pose a significant risk to people and infrastructure located along important national transport networks. Such instability phenomena, mostly driven by pre-existing structures...
Proceedings Article

Using RocFall3 to Investigate the Rockfall Hazard Process on Highly Fractured Rocky Hills, Yaounde, Cameroon

Roger Bissaya, Robert Eko Medjo, Richard Tanwi Ghogomu, Bernard Njom, Bernadin Bohi
Overs the last few years, several rocky hills have undergone voluminous mass movements in the Yaounde area. A first check analysis of rock and slope properties suggests that rockfalls or collapses are the most likely mode of failure in this area. This paper considers the feasibility of using RocFall3...
Proceedings Article

RS3 Feasibility Modelling of a Semi-Circular Notched Sample Spalling Experiment

M. Trzop, L. Gomez, A. G. Corkum
Spalling in rock has been an area of focus for researchers since it was first observed in tunnels and boreholes. The earliest form of spalling tests are in-situ tests, but due to high costs and the risks associated with allowing an excavation to fail, the focus of spalling research has shifted to a safe...
Proceedings Article

Stability Analysis of Hard Rock Pillars Under Compressive and Shear Loading Conditions Using 2D and 3D Numerical Modeling

Farzaneh Hamediazad, Navid Bahrani
Numerical modeling allows for investigating the stability of mine pillars under different loading conditions. Unfavorable shear stresses may develop within mine pillars when the orebody is inclined or when the pillar axes are not aligned with in-situ principal stress directions. Quirke Mine, ON, Canada,...
Proceedings Article

Assessment of the Critical State Locus in Reconstituted Samples and Calibration of NorSand Model

Rios Villarreal Eliza Alejandra, Botero Jaramillo Eduardo
The critical state theory has been widely applied in geotechnics, and understanding the mechanical and geotechnical properties of particulate materials is one of the major challenges nowadays. In the mining industry, this is a concern regarding tailings storage facilities, that experience transitions...
Proceedings Article

Influence of Geotechnical Parameters and In-Situ Stresses on Strainburst Potential

N. Ramirez, A. Delonca
As a result of the intense exploitation of mineral resources on the surface, mining excavations must migrate to deeper environments. At greater depths, in-situ stresses increase along with the probability of rockburst occurrence. Different authors have studied this phenomenon in depth, however, the influence...