Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Social Science and Character Educations (ICoSSCE 2019)

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66 articles
Proceedings Article

Religious Value in Kuda Lumping Dance

Sri Susanti, Miftahuddin, Budi Wahyu Kurniawan
Kuda Lumping is one of the arts that is developing in the Temanggung Regency. Kuda lumpings are widely exhibited at entertainment events today. Even so, kuda lumpings are always associated with magical things that show the phenomenon of possession of the spirit of “possessed”. This research was conducted...
Proceedings Article

The Role of National Character Building in History Learning as a Preventive Control of Violence Case Among Students

Oktavia Prastyaningrum, Supardi
Brawl (tawuran), or mass street fighting involving students or gang of students, turns as significantly high violence cases among students in Indonesia. Reflecting the case of students’ brawl still becoming education issues, this paper is aimed to comprehensively elucidate the significance of national...
Proceedings Article

The Utilization of Faced Tradition in Historical Learning to Plant Religious Values in Students

Uzratul Laela, Sudrajat
This study aims to explain the background of the Ngejot Tradition itself. To find out the values contained in the Ngejot Tradition and the use of the Ngejot Tradition in historical learning to instill religious value in students. The research method used in this research is descriptive qualitative research...
Proceedings Article

Utilization of Schoology for the Development of PPKn Teaching Materials Based on E-learning

Alil Rinenggo, Mukhammad Murdiono
This article aims to describe the use of Schoology for the development of e-learning based PPKn teaching materials. The research method uses literature study. The results showed that the use of Schoology for the development of e-learning based PPKn teaching materials could strengthen the aspects of civic...
Proceedings Article

Strategy of Prabowo Populism in 2019 General Elections

Lisa Rukmana, Aman, Nuzon Sugito
Populism is currently on the rise as many people talk. Both in the Western world and the Asian region. Today many political figures use populism strategies as their political ammunition on the political stage. In Indonesia itself, there was once a populist leader who was charismatic and close to the...
Proceedings Article

Teacher’s Roles on the Implementation of Character Education in Elementary Schools

Putri Dwi Humaerah, Mukminan, Jayanti Yusmah Sari
This study aims to describe the role of teachers in the implementation of character education in elementary schools based on two learning variables: (1) learning conditions variables and (2) learning method variables. This study used a qualitative approach with a qualitative descriptive research method...
Proceedings Article

Teaching Historical Empathy to Z Generation Through Musical Poetry in Senior High School

Citra Arniathy Laoli, Ajat Sudrajat, Titian B. Gea
musical of poetry. This research study was implemented using a qualitatively descriptive approach through case studies. The results of the research were collected by observation and analyzed using the Miles & Huberman model. The results of this research showed that the musical of poetry was effective...
Proceedings Article

The Implementation of Independent Character Education in SD N Terbansari 1, Yogyakarta

Ervina Puspitaningrum, Christina Ismaniati
This research aims to describe the implementation of independent character education at SD N Terbansari 1 Yogyakarta. This research used qualitative approach with research subject eight teachers, fifteen students, and a headmaster. Data collection technique used observation, interview, and documentation....
Proceedings Article

The Role of Siti Walidah in the Women’s Emancipation Process in the World of Education Through ‘Aisyiyah in Banyumas District

Tri Mulyani, Zulkarnain
The purpose of this study was to determine the progress and struggle of Siti Walidah in upholding women’s equality and its role in advancing education through the organization ‘Aisyiyah. The research method used is the study of literature. The results showed that the role of Siti Walidah in the emancipation...
Proceedings Article

The Nationalism of Giyugun Officers in South Sumatra

Teti Hestiliani, Miftahuddin
This article examined the role of Giyugun officers in maintaining Indonesia’s independence. In this discussion, the focus was on the South Sumatra region which was the basis of the Giyugun training, or voluntary army formed by the Japanese military administration in Southern Sumatra. It is interesting...
Proceedings Article

Dimensions of Early Childhood Character Education Based on Multiculturism

Harun, Abdul Manaf, Martha Christianti
This study examines the dimensions of early childhood character education based on multicultural relating to human relations. Research locations in the Central Java Province, especially the Ex Yogyakarta Residency. The research subjects were 451 children from 26 PAUD institutions. The research method...
Proceedings Article

Education of National Characters Based on Local Cultural Values in History Learning Through Traditional Philosophy of Minangkabau

Restu Fauzi, Dyah Kumalasari
This article aims to describe the process in the tradition of the appointment of Minangkabau traditional leaders in Tanah Datar regency, which in terms of the Minangkabau community is called the Batagak Pangulu traditional ceremony. The purpose of this study was first, to find out the history of the...
Proceedings Article

Common Disagreements and Misconceptions of Bullying Amongst Teachers: The Case Study at Mu’allimin Muhammadiyah, Yogyakarta

Desy Santi Rozakiyah, Amika Wardana
Unequal relationship of adolescent peer teams furthermore as senior-junior hierarchy occurred inside faculty social atmosphere drove students to accidentally inflicting harms to different students. Supported the qualitative analysis to students that ill-used by acts of bullying, lecturers and counselors...
Proceedings Article

Discourse on the Improvement of History Learning Quality Through HOTS Assessment Instrument Based on Learning Trajectory

Febbrizal, Aman
Improving the quality of history learning is something that every historical education practitioner wants. The demands of the twentieth century (21st) era which is increasingly developing requires a balanced effort to serve these rapid developments. Hence, the discourse to improve the quality of learning...
Proceedings Article

Becoming a Teacher with Character

Ulfah Nury Batubara, Dyah Kumalasari
Today’s youth character has driven further away from the values/norms adopted by the Indonesian people. In this case, teacher as the driving force of education has a very heavy duty to reclaim good characters for students. The role and function of the teacher is not only teaching but also educating....
Proceedings Article

The Impact of Education on Social Stratification and Social Mobility in Communities in Indonesia

Suci Budiati, Saefur Rochmat
This research is a literature study on education on social stratification and social mobility in Indonesian society. This research was conducted to find out how the implications of education in changing and changing social stratification and social mobility in Indonesian society. It is important to know...
Proceedings Article

The Development of Contemporary Islamic Thought in Indonesia in the 2013 Curriculum (Ahmad Syafi’i Ma’arif’s Thoughts)

Muchrom Wikandono, Aman
Indonesia responds to globalization very quickly so that the education world must also follow quickly by developing an education curriculum called the 2013 Curriculum. The presence of the 2013 curriculum has a significant difference from the previous curriculum, this has resulted in the subjects of Islamic...
Proceedings Article

Material Development of Sultan Baabullah’s Resistance (1570–1583) for Character Education

La Ode Dinda, Aman
Character education is an attempt to shape the students’ character based on the expected values. History as a humanities science is an appropriate means to develop character education. The students’ history books in case of foreign authority resistance in Indonesia always emphasize on regional battle....
Proceedings Article

Democratic Culture in Sanggar Anak Alam

Ahmad Juanda, Taat Wulandari
This study aims to describe democratic culture practice in teaching-learning process at Sanggar Anak Alam. This study was a qualitative research with a naturalistic approach. Research subject’s selection used purposive sampling technique. Data collection was obtained from interviews, observations, and...
Proceedings Article

Improving Problem Solving Skills Through Problem-Based and Problem-Solving Learning Models Viewed From Cognitive Style in Social Science Learning

Provita Devi Zantania, Muhsinatun Siasah Masruri
This study aimed to examine (1) the significance of the difference in the influence of problem-based and problem-solving learning models for solving problems in social studies learning in Yogyakarta State Junior High School, (2) the significance of the difference in the influence of field-dependent and...
Proceedings Article

Disaster Mitigation Curriculum-Based on Local Wisdom to Support Sustainable Development Programs

Zainal Musthofa, Setyabudi Indartono
The writing of this article was conducted to provide an overview of disaster mitigation curricula based on local wisdom to support sustainable development programs. Disaster mitigation is needed as an effort to minimize damage caused by disasters. Indonesia is a country that has great potential for disasters,...
Proceedings Article

The Policy of Commercialization Abolition in Indonesia Equality Education Effort: The Explanation of the Coleman’s Report

Nur Hamidah, Setyabudi Indartono
This research is about the chaos of Indonesian education that getting worst due to commercialization in the system. How education could be the zone of economic investment also as the way to defend the power. How Indonesian education would be in the future? How to solve these problems so that equality...
Proceedings Article

History Learning Based on Local Wisdom of Taluba

Mutia Wahyu Salbella, Dyah Kumalasari
Historical subjects are one of the effective and strategic subjects to instill character values based on local wisdom. Local wisdom which is integrated in the learning of history is the local wisdom of the Taluba tribe of Banjar. Taluba consists of two words: talu (three) and ba (baiman, bauntung, and...
Proceedings Article

The Study of K.H. Ahmad Dahlan’s Entrepreneurship Values and it’s Urgency in Character Strengthening

Meri Robbi Kurniawanti, Dyah Kumalasari
This research aims to: (1) reveal the background of life and analyze the role of K.H Ahmad Dahlan in the trajectory of Indonesian history; (2) review entrepreneurship values of K.H. Ahmad Dahlan; (3) analyze how entrepreneurial values of K.H. Ahmad Dahlan can be actualized in historical learning in the...
Proceedings Article

Building Teacher Resilience to Face Juvenile Delinquency

Agung Ihsanat, Setyabudi Indartono
The development of technology and information has an increasingly complicated problem of juvenile delinquency. Juvenile delinquency at this time is not a simple problem, if left unchecked, this problem can lead to criminal acts. In educational institutions, juvenile delinquency often impacts the effectiveness...
Proceedings Article

Fulfillment of Education Rights for Diffable Students

Masita Sukri, Setyabudi Indartono
Education is a necessity for everyone. No exception for students with disabilities. So that education can be accessed by anyone, it is still very far from its application. This study uses the Library Research method. The results of this study indicate that efforts to facilitate their existence are directly...
Proceedings Article

Revitalizing the Local Interests of Tabot in the Effort of Strengthening Identity in the Bengkulu

Deva juniarti, Aman
The Bengkulu Ark is a religious ceremony that was adapted into an ethnic cultural festival. The ceremony originated from the tradition of the Shia sect which sought to commemorate Husen’s death in Padang Karbala, in 680. The Tabot ceremony was later claimed by the Bengkulu people as a cultural heritage....
Proceedings Article

Implementation of Multicultural Values in Indonesian History Learning to Build Tolerance and Nationalism Attitudes of Students of Ngaglik 1 Senior High School, Sleman

Rendra Havid Pranata, Aman, Johan Setiawan
The objectives of this study are: (1) to find out the urgency of multicultural values, Indonesian history, tolerance and nationalism, (2) to find out Indonesian history lesson plan in instilling multicultural values, (3) to identify the implementation of Indonesian history learning based on multicultural,...
Proceedings Article

Digital Literacy: Empowering Indonesian Women In Overcoming Digital Divide

Sylvi Marini, Farida Hanum, Alfian Sulistiyo
The advance of information and communication technology has brought some changes to the society. Unfortunately, in Indonesia, it carries with its consequences, such as digital literacy. Based on the studies of the field, women’s involvement is lower compared to that of men. The divide in digital literacy...
Proceedings Article

The Role of Teachers in Strengthening Character Education to Prepare Students to Enter the Age of Disruption and Abundance Technology

Agus Yuliyanto, Setyabudi Indartono
Technological progress is one important element in the world of education, especially in the face of the age of globalization that has eroded the values of the character of Indonesian society. The role of teachers in preparing students to attend the era of technological progress is one effort to equip...
Proceedings Article

Quo Vadis Gender Mainstreaming Policy to Fight Against the Prevalence of Gender-Based Violence in Indonesia

Anisa Rizki, Farida Hanum
Gender-based violence is still an unresolved problem in Indonesia. This is indicated by the high level of violence against women and children. Violence is one indicator in the gender equality and equity index used to measure development success. This certainly shows that Indonesia still has challenges...
Proceedings Article

From Where the Authoritarian Parents Come? Examining Parenting Models Within Ethnic Minorities

Bohal Domenicus Situmorang, Sudrajat
The study of the form of parenting has diverse differences and characteristics in every family in the world. In this case, parenting becomes very interesting when it comes to the discussion about the form of parenting that adopted by minority groups in order to be able to maintain their identity and...
Proceedings Article

The Influence of Socio-Economic Background of Parents on Academic Expectations of Their Children: Data From Indonesian Family Live Survey in 2014

Deri Indrahadi, Amika Wardana, Yunike Sulistyosari, Sigit Wisnu Tomo, Ike Sylvia, Nadiyya Qurrotu Aini Zummi
This study was conducted to explain various socio-economic background factors, specifically parental education level, parent’s income, parental employment status, and family size that influence parental expectations on children’s education. Data comes from IFLS-5. Parents’ academic expectations are measured...
Proceedings Article

Moral Education and its Challenges in the Industrial Revolution 4.0

Desy Artian Maharani, Hastuti
Moral has been a foundation of each person’s behavior. They used it to distinguish between good or bad attitude especially in this industrial revolution 4.0 which grew rapidly. Keeping the moral value in each person’s hand could be a suitable reference to do some goodness. This matter has become a challenge...
Proceedings Article

Harmony in Diversity: The Implementation of Multicultural Education at Indonesian Schools

Dwi Chyntia Putri, Nasiwan
Diversity is not only existed in society but also Education. It is the same with what society has, starting from the diverse ethnic, language, and social class in the school. From that diversity, the term multicultural education which is taught in schools emerges. Multicultural education is an education...
Proceedings Article

Managing Multicultural Classrooms of Schools in Indonesia: Some Considerations

Diah Safitri, Ariefa Efianingrum
This study provides deceptions concerning management of multicultural classrooms as an effort to accomplish the objectives of multicultural education. In Indonesia, multicultural classrooms have been implemented by some schools. The success of the implementations of multicultural education is an integration...
Proceedings Article

Promoting Inclusive Education for Social Justice in Indonesia

Dwi Sri Astuti, Sudrajat
Inclusive education is one way of realizing equality in education regardless of physical and social background. Inclusive education embodies equal education without discrimination and unites children with special needs with other normal children. Inclusive education is one way to achieve social justice...
Proceedings Article

Decreasing the Violence in the School Through the Initiation Policy of Children Friendly School

Dyah Lupitasari, Siti Irene Astuti Dwiningrum
The violence practices to the children in the school which must be the comfortable, safety, and conducive place for the children’ development. The number of violence nowadays that increased draws the needs of regulation in the education system about friendly school for children. The main objective of...
Proceedings Article

When Islam and Democracy Meet in Indonesia

Hamka Mujahid Ma’ruf, Supardi
Indonesia’s political system is democracy. Indonesia’s democracy is religious democracy. Even though democracy is godly, there are Islamic groups who are antipathy and want to overthrow it. Democracy in Indonesia still has many shortcomings, but that is no reason to leave it, especially if the substitute...
Proceedings Article

Gender Inequality and Labor Market in Indonesia (Between 2014–2018)

Isna Farida, Aman, Amika Wardana
Gender Inequality still happened in various field especially in finding job opportunity. It could be seen from the gender inequality in the labor market in Indonesia by watching the participation level of workforce (TPAK) and the professional level of woman labor in Indonesia. The data used were the...
Proceedings Article

Indigenous Knowledge: Develop Cross-Cultural Literacy and Character of Indonesia in Multicultural Society

Kirana Prama Dewi
Indonesia is a great nation with cultural diversity. This diversity is a potential and uniqueness of Indonesian society. However, the potential and specificity are not getting the chance to develop and manage itself based on the wisdom and the will to coexist peacefully. Indigenous Knowledge is an ancestral...
Proceedings Article

Social Capital and School Quality

Mohamad Farhan Taufik, Siti Irene Astuti Dwiningrum
Education is one component to improve the quality of individuals and countries. To achieve this the education sector must also have good quality, in addition to the government as an institution that aims to improve the quality of schools, the school institution itself must also have the will to become...
Proceedings Article

Integrating Islamic School into the National Education of Indonesia: Balancing Between Intellectual and Spiritual Question

Muhammad Zuhad Rifqi, Ajat Sudrajat
Human needs for the qualified education aim to improve the quality of individual resources. Some educational institutions have provided maximum performance for the educational process carried out. The times are very demanding individuals and institutions to be globally oriented in the world of education....
Proceedings Article

Local Wisdom in The Form of Traditonal Food, Corn in Karo People Tradition

C. Dewi Hartati, Rosramadhana, Yulie Neila Chandra
This paper will discuss one of local wisdom in Karo people tradition. Karo people who live in Tanah Karo, North Sumatera is a peasant society. Corn is a biggest crop. There is relation between nature and society. Corn become a local wisdom because besides become a crop, corn is a form of tradition through...
Proceedings Article

Teaching Social Studies Education to Foster Civic Characters at the Secondary School in Indonesia: A Review

Nadiyya Qurrotu Aini Zummi, Supardi, Sukamto, Sigit Wisnu Tomo, Yunike Sulistyosari, Deri Indrahadi
Being a good citizen must be formed early. An important way to shape students into good citizens is through education. Character is closely related to morals, good behavior and actions, therefore education has a big task to help students grow and form good character. Character education must be applied...
Proceedings Article

Grounding the Teachings of Kuntowijoyo as a Prophetic Social Science as an Effort to Counteract Radicalism in Indonesia

Novita Sari, Taat Wulandari
This study analyzes the strategy in counteracting radicalism from the perspective of Kuntowijoyo’s prophetic social science. The values of Kuntowijoyo’s prophetic social science such as the values of liberation, humanization, and transcendence as an alternative way to counteract radicalism in Indonesia....
Proceedings Article

Promoting Good Citizenship in the Social Studies Course at the Secondary School in Indonesia

Nugraheni Catur Puntaswari, Mukminan
Globalization is an unstoppable current that has positive and negative impacts. The positive impacts such as cooperation, easy access to information, while the negative impacts refer more to the nature or actions such as the many moral crimes committed by adolescents. It is also due to the lack of optimal...
Proceedings Article

The Primary Values of Tarakanita’s Educational Characters

Paulinus Yanto, Dyah Kumalasari
Students’ environment in Indonesia is currently experiencing a moral decline that can endanger the young generation of Indonesian as we observe the occurring social phenomena and symptoms. Juvenile delinquency that is increasingly prevalent, such as mass street fighting between students, pre-marital...
Proceedings Article

Character Education of Java Culture Based on Total Quality Management in State High School, 9 Yogyakarta

Ratri Puspitasari, Rukiyati
Education and culture are two things that cannot be avoided from one’s life. Culture is a heritage that must be preserved by the next generation. Culture can fade along with the development of the era if there are no more generations to preserve it. Education is one way to maintain culture and in culture...
Proceedings Article

Jamuran Game in Improving 4- to 6-year-old Children’s Responsibility at TK Nasional Samirono, Yogyakarta

Ridha Fadila Putri, Dimyati
Traditional games contain beneficial values for children’s life. One of them is Jamuran game which can evolve children’sresponsibilities in an enjoyable way. This study aimed to improve children’s responsibilities through Jamuran traditional game. By implementing this research, hopefully the school can...
Proceedings Article

Freedom with Responsibility: Building Student’s Integrity Through a Democratic School Culture

Septi Nur Damayanti, Mukminan
Academic dishonesty has become an unresolved issue in the education world. Dishonesty is related to the character of integrity. This paper aims to determine the importance of the character of integrity for students, efforts to foster the character of integrity and develop a democratic school culture...
Proceedings Article

The Waning Gotong-Royong: Assessing the Intergenerational Decline of Social Trust in the Contemporary Indonesia Society

Sigit Wisnu Tomo, Amika Wardana, Deri Indrahadi, Nadiyya Qurrotu Aini Zummi, Yunike Sulistyosari
This study aims to investigate the level of differences in the intergenerational social trust in the context of a society in Indonesia – linked to the traditional value of Gotong Royong. The study uses data from the 5th edition of the Indonesia Family Live Survey (IFLS), which was published in 2014 and...
Proceedings Article

The Role of Private Tuition Classes as a Supplementary Agency in the Indonesia Education System

Siti Umi Fadhilah, Farida Hanum
Education is a basic tool in the formation of a better society. Because with education someone will be guided to know various things such as the norms and values of life, which in turn will affect their lifestyles and behavior. However, the presence of formal schools did not make many people satisfied...
Proceedings Article

The Socialization of Multiculturalism Values Based on Abdurrahman Wahid’s Thoughts in History Learning to Create Student Cultural Equality

Siti Zya Ama, Taat Wulandari
This article aims to describe the importance of the socialization of multiculturalism values in history learning to realize the cultural equality of students. The State of Indonesia is a country that consists of various diverse cultures. Not only bringing positive values, life with a diverse culture...
Proceedings Article

The Implementation Values of Multicultural Education Based on Tolerance in Indonesian Schools

Tenni Oktaviana Sipayung, Siti Irene Astuti Dwiningrum
This study aims to describe the implementation of tolerance-based multicultural education values in Indonesian schools. The focus of the problem is related to the implications of schools in instilling the values of multicultural education on the attitude of tolerance that is taught to students. The method...
Proceedings Article

Conflict and Overlapping Authorities in the Newly Implemented School Zoning Policy in Indonesia the Case in the Urban–Rural Regency of Magelang

Tri Widayati, Ajat Sudrajat
The zoning system is a policy pursued by the Ministry of Education and Culture to provide equal access to education services and equal distribution of the quality of national education. This qualitative research aims to get an idea of whether zoning policies on the acceptance of new students in the city...
Proceedings Article

A Picture Story Book Based on Minangkabau Culture for Religion and Moral Early Childhood

Tria Marini, Rukiyati
This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the Minangkabau culture-based picture book on the religious and moral knowledge of early childhood. The data in this study were collected using the pre-experimental one group pre-test post-test method. The number of samples in this study were...
Proceedings Article

Religious Example of Character Nyi Ageng Serang in 2013 Curriculum

Wahyu Ida Permatasari, Aman
This article is motivated by the many problems that occur among the younger generation. One factor is the lack of character education provided both in schools and in the surrounding environment. Plus, there are no examples of examples that can make this 4.0 generation emulate or imitate their idols in...
Proceedings Article

Traditional Games Based Learning for Character Development of Early Childhood

Wahyu Putri Melati, Suparno
Indonesia has a diverse cultural exotic, one of which is a traditional game. But in recent decades, traditional games have slowly begun to be forgotten, by being replaced with technology-based modern games. Even though traditional games have many learning benefits that are useful for children’s development,...
Proceedings Article

Examining the Basic Educational Rights in the Newly-Implemented School Zoning Policy in Indonesia

Yunike Sulistyosari, Siti Irene Astuti Dwiningrum, Nadiyya Qurrotu Aini Zummi, Sigit Wisnu Tomo, Deri Indrahadi
School zoning policy is one of the government’s efforts to fulfill the rights of education for citizens. Indonesia has implemented this policy based on Permendikbud Law No. 14 of 2018. In the Indonesian context, this policy has provided easy access to the public to get an education, so that people who...
Proceedings Article

Elaboration and Reflection at the Practical Level Integrating Character Education in Schools

Yusfasanti, Niza Machfauzia
Character education is a phenomenon that is difficult to define because it includes various kinds of results, pedagogical strategies and philosophical orientations. Character education in its field is much more difficult to map. There was great interest in education for the character development beginning...
Proceedings Article

Adjustments of School Cultures to Prevent Students’ Dropout

Zismeda Taru, Suyanto
This study aims to understand ways to manage school culture in understanding students. The problem in this study is the number of students with different backgrounds from students who generally attend the Gadjah Mada High School in Yogyakarta. This research uses a qualitative approach. Methods of collecting...
Proceedings Article

Teacher’s Education for Character Education

Mutiarawati Fajariah, Djoko Suryo
The issue of character education is a topic of education in Indonesia today. Sharing the problems faced by this nation will increasingly encourage the spirit and efforts of the government to prioritize character education as a foundation for the nation’s education development. In assessment of erosion...
Proceedings Article

Teacher’s Readiness in Using Digital Technology for Learning in Samarinda City High School

Milawati, Maimun Sholeh
Today the community, including the teachers, has entered the digital era, an era that has surpassed the era of computer technology. This study aims to describe Teacher’s Readiness in Using Digital Technology for Learning in Samarinda City High School. Respondents in the study were 46 teachers from State...
Proceedings Article

The Effectiveness of Picture Simulation Game Method to Improve Critical and Creative Ability in Learning History in SMA N 1 Bandar

Rini Riris Setyowati, Aman, Alifi Nur Prasetia Nugroho
This study aims to find out the improvement of critical thinking ability and creativity of students in history learning through a picture simulation game method. The research method used in this study is Classroom Action Research (CAR). This study is using a research cycle which consists of 2 repeating...
Proceedings Article

Speech Level in Some Indonesian Regional Languages and Implication for Conservation

Bambang Suwarno, Amanda Pradhani Yanwar
Indonesian regional indigenous languages are in decline and their conservation faces considerable challenges. One possible challenge is speech level. This paper aims to describe the existence of speech level in some regional indigenous languages and its possible implication for their conservation. The...